Staphylococcus aureus is a round-shaped, gram-positive bacterium. This bacterium is the member of Firmicutes, and it is also a member of the normal flora of body because it is frequently found in the respiratory tract, nose and on the skin of the body.
Usually positive for nitrate reduction and catalase. Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobe that means it can develop without the need if oxygen.
The S.aureus is not pathogenic always, therefore, it can be found commonly on the existing commensal. The common causes of skin infection such as respiratory infections ( Food poisoning and sinusitis) and abscesses are due to Staphylococcus aureus.
The strains of pathogenic often promote the infections by creating the virulence factors like potent protein toxins and the cell surface expression that binds and make antibodies inactive.
The development of anti-infection strains of S. aureus, for example, methicillin-safe S. aureus (MRSA) is an overall issue in the clinical drug. Regardless of much innovative work, no antibody for S. aureus has been approved.
Table of Contents
- 1 Nomenclature
- 2 History
- 3 Carriage of S. aureus
- 4 Types of diseases caused by S.Aureus
- 5 Molecules produced by Staphylococcus aureus
- 6 Treatment
- 7 Taxonomy
- 8 Habitat
- 9 References
|Scientific Name||Staphylococcus aureus|
|Synonym||golden staph, Micrococcus pyogenes or Micrococcus aureus|
- English: common Staphylococcus aureus
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- Greek: Η ασθένεια του σταφυλοκοκου ή I asthéneia tou stafylokokou
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- Japanese: スタフィロコッカスアウレウス or Sutafirokokkasuaureusu
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The History of Staphylococcus aureus is given below.
Origin of Staphylococcus aureus
The Staphylococcus was first identified in Aberdeen, Scotland in 1880. It is identified by the Surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in the joint of the knee.
This name was later altered to Staphylococcus aureus by the Friedrich Julius Rosenbach. That was credited by the official arrangement of classification at the time. It is expected that around 20% to 30% of the human population are bearers of S. aureus.
Which can be found as a component of the ordinary skin Flora, in the nostrils.S. aureus can cause different types of diseases, from minor skin diseases, for example, cellulitis, Pimples, carbuncles, impetigo, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome to the life-threatening disease like meningitis, pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, Osteomyelitis, sepsis, and bacteremia.
It is as yet one of the five most basic reasons for hospital-acquired infections and is frequently the reason for wound diseases following a medical surgery. it is estimated that each year, around 500,000 patients are hospitalized in the United States due to staphylococcal disease, mostly by S. aureus. Around 50,000 deaths occur, every year in the USA and these deaths are connected with S. aureus infection.
Distinctive Features of Staphylococcus aureus
MRSA (Methicillin-safe Staphylococcus aureus) is a bacterium disease which is responsible for many diseases that are hard to treat.
It is also known as oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA). MRSA is any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has created, through the procedure of common selection, protection from beta-lactam antimicrobial, which also includes the penicillins (methicillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, and so on.) and the cephalosporins.
Strains unfit to oppose these anti-infections and they are classified as the methicillin-delicate Staphylococcus aureus or MSSA. The development of such resistance does not make the organism to be more inherently harmful than strains of S. aureus that have no anti-infection resistance, yet the resistance makes MRSA disease more hard to treat with standard kinds of anti-toxins and therefore riskier.
In the hospital’s, prisons and nursing houses MRSA is particularly troublesome. The reason is patients with open injuries, intrusive gadgets, and the weak immune system are at more serious danger of nosocomial contamination as compare to the overall population.
MRSA started as a hospital gained disease, however, it has created restricted endemic status and is currently in some cases it is community acquired. The terms HA-MRSA (medicinal services related MRSA) and CA-MRSA (Community-related MRSA) reflect this refinement.
Carriage of S. aureus
It is estimated that Around 33% of the U.S. population are the transporters of S. aureus and around 2% population convey MRSA.
The carriage of S. aureus is a vital source of hospital obtained infection (also known as nosocomial) and community of people gained MRSA. Despite the fact that S. aureus can be available on the skin of the host, an expansive extent of its carriage is through the front nares of the nasal passages and can also be available in the ears.
The capacity of the nasal entries to harbor S. aureus results from a blend of a debilitated or inadequate host immune system and the bacterium’s capacity to avoid have inborn immunity. Nasal carriage is likewise ensnared in the event of staph infections.
This infection can also cause due to human to human touch. Recently, Some Vet doctors have discovered that this infection can also be spread through pets. The infected areas are also the reason behind this disease, therefore, it is suggested that people should wash their hands after playing.
Role of S. aureus in health
In people, S. aureus is a piece of the ordinary microbiota present in the upper respiratory tract, in the gut mucosa and on the skin.
S. aureus, alongside comparative species that can colonize and act symbiotically. however they can cause illness in case they start to take control over the tissues they have colonized or attack different tissues, have been classified “pathobionts”.
S.aureus Role in the Diseases
While S. aureus normally goes about as a commensal bacterium, asymptomatically colonizing around 30% of the human population, it can cause disease. specifically, S. aureus is a standout amongst the most well-known reasons for bacteremia and infective endocarditis.
Also, it can cause different skin and delicate tissue infections, especially when mucosa or skin mucosal barriers have been broken.
How this disease spreada?
S. aureus contaminations can spread through contact with discharge from a tainted injury, skin-to-skin contact with a contaminated individual, and contact with items utilized by a contaminated individual, for example, towels, sheets, garments, or athletic gear.
Joint substitutions put a man at a specific danger of septic joint pain, staphylococcal endocarditis (disease of the heart valves), and pneumonia.
The drug users, diabetic people and the people who are suffering from the heart condition shout take extra care. These people especially need to avoid coming into contact with the S.aureus because they are at higher risk of getting these disease as compared to others.
The prevention measure can be used to prevent this disease such as hand washing with soap and taking bath on daily basis.
Types of diseases caused by S.Aureus
Following diseases can be caused due to S. aureus bacteria.
- Skin infection
- Food poisoning
- Bone and joint infections
The most common form of S. aureus infection is the Skin infection. This infection can manifest in a number of ways such as folliculitis, cellulitis, boils, impetigo and more dangerous.
This disease is extremely spreadable in persons with atopic dermatitis more commonly called as eczema. Eczema is mostly found in the fertile and active places such as hair, scalp, and armpits.
The large pimples that appear in these areas are due to this infection and it can lead to staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. This condition is very severe and mostly seen in the newborns.
The S. aureus presence in people with atopic dermatitis isn’t a sign to treat with oral anti-antibiotics, As proof has not demonstrated this to offer an advantage to the patient. However, topical anti-antibiotics joined with corticosteroids have been found to enhance the condition.
S. aureus can also cause food poisoning. It is able of creating toxins that cause food poisoning in the human body. The Preventive measure one can take to help keep the spread of the illness incorporate washing hands altogether with cleanser and water before Preparing the food.
You should Avoid any food if you are sick, and wear gloves if any open injuries happen on hands or wrists while Preparing your food. in case you want to store your food longer than 2 hours then you should keep the food above 140 or beneath 40 °F.
Bone and joint infections
All the major bone and joint infections occur due to S. Aureus bacterium. This shows in one of three structures: inflammation osteomyelitis, septic joint, an infection from a substitution joint surgery.
Molecules produced by Staphylococcus aureus
Coagulase ( free and bound Coagulases) are produced by S. Aureus and it clots the plasma and coats the cell of bacteria. It most probably prevents the phagocytosis Hyaluronidase that is also a known factor for the breakdown of hyaluronic acid.
S. aureus also produces the deoxyribonuclease that breaks down the DNA, Staphylokinase to dissolve fibrin, Lipase to digest lipids and it aids in the spread.
The S. aureus is capable of secreting several exotoxins depending on the strain. It can be categorized into three different groups.
• Exfoliative toxins
• Other toxins
The biofilm of S. Aureus has very high resistance toward antibiotic treatments and immune response of the host. According to one hypothesis, the biofilm matrix protects the embedded cells by behaving like a barrier to prevent the antibiotic penetration.
Although this hypothesis is becoming less likely because the biofilm matrix is composed of water channels. On the other hand, Biofilm matrix contains the antibiotic-degrading enzymes like B-lactamases that prevent the antibiotic penetration.
The S. aureus disease treatment is penicillin. An anti-antibiotic that is deprived of some Penicillium Fungal species, penicillin represses the arrangement of peptidoglycan cross-linkages that give the inflexibility, quality, and strength in a bacterial cell wall.
The four-membered β-lactam ring of penicillin is bound to protein DD-transpeptidase, a chemical that when functional, cross-joins chains of peptidoglycan that shape bacterial cell walls.
The binding of β-lactam to DD-transpeptidase hinders the catalyst’s usefulness and it can never again catalyze the development of the cross-joins.
Accordingly, cell wall arrangement and degradation are imbalanced, Causing cells to die. In many nations, the use of penicillin is very normal. It is first-line treatment is the penicillinase-safe β-lactam antibiotic (for instance, oxacillin or flucloxacillin, the two of which have an indistinguishable component of activity from penicillin).
Mix treatment with gentamicin might be utilized to treat genuine diseases, for example, endocarditis, yet its utilization is questionable as a result of the high danger of harm to the kidneys.
- Domain: Bacteria
- Kingdom: Eubacteria
- Phylum: Firmicutes
- Class: Bacilli
- Order: Bacillales
- Family: Staphylococcaceae
- Genus: Staphylococcus
- Species: S. Aureus
Staphylococcus aureus Fun Facts
Fun facts of Staphylococcus aureus is given below: