Loligo vulgaris is a huge squid belonging to the family Loliginidae. It occurs inexhaustibly in beachfront waters from the North Sea to the west shoreline of Africa.

This species lives from ocean level to profundities of 500 m (1,600 ft). Its mantle is up to 40 cm (16 in) long. The species is widely misused by business fisheries. Loligo, the Cape Hope squid, was previously regarded as a subspecies of L. vulgaris.

The European squid has a long, reasonably slim and barrel-shaped body. Rhomboid balances include 66% of the mantle length, however, headway is by means of fly propulsion. The posterior border is somewhat curved.

loligo vulgaris

The head is generally little and has extensive eyes which are secured with a straightforward layer. Like all squid, this species has ten appendages encompassing the mouth and nose: eight are moderately short arms, and two, which shape the limbs, are long, as they are utilized to get prey.

The fourth left arm of guys is a hectocotylus. The European squid can grow up to 30– 40 cm in the mantle length, yet more, for the most part, they are 15– 25 cm long. The males are for the most part greater than the females and show more fast rates of development.

The shade of the European squid is grayish or ruddy, contingent upon the extension of chromatophores in the dermis. Males have little chromatophores on their mantle.


NameEuropean Squid
Scientific NameLoligo Vulgaris
SynonymsLoligo affinis,
Loligo berthelotii,
Loligo breviceps,
Loligo mediterranea,
Loligo microcephala,
Loligo neglecta,
Loligo pulchra,
Loligo rangii,
Sepia loligo

Vernacular Names

  • English: European Squid
  • Albanian: ulignja
  • Basque: txipiroiak
  • Catalan: calamar
  • Czech: Krakatice
  • Danish: Europæisk loligo
  • Dutch: gewone pijlinktvis
  • French: encornet
  • Galician: lura txibia
  • German: Kalmar
  • Greek: Καλαμάρι
  • Icelandic: smokkfiskur
  • Italian: Calamaro
  • Polish: Kałamarnice
  • Portuguese: lula-vulgar
  • Russian: severniy kalmar
  • Scottish Gaelic: scuid
  • Slovak: Kalmáry
  • Slovenian: lignji
  • Spanish: calamar
  • Turkish: Kalamar


The history of the Loligo Vulgaris is below:


Besides, the population of the loliginid squid Loligo vulgaris is from monthly tests taken from the Scottish fishery (1990– 1992)Length-recurrence dispersions are unpredictable, especially in males, with a few size modes present in every month.

Development rates have all the earmarks of being variable, with no single condition portraying the development of all putative small scale accomplices. Length-weight connections shift in connection to development organize, and a downfall in measure-adjusted mantle weight.

In the later development, stages show the redirection of assets from physical to conceptive development. The sex proportion among initiates is one-sided towards males, yet turns out to be progressively one-sided towards females as the creatures develop.

Fossil Records

Although the fossil record of loligo is rich, with more than 7500 species recorded. The latest known cephalopod is Plectronoceras from the Cambrian of China. It is around 520 million years (My) old.

Eventually, in the Cambrian, there was a period of unstable radiation among the cephalopods and this proceeded into the Early Ordovician.

During this period, the order Endoceratida offered to ascend to numerous different orders. Then together shaping the subclass Nautiloide, of which the order Nautilida was the last to emerge. It is around 410 My before.

Anyway, before the finish of the Triassic, every one of the members from this subclass turned out to wipe out. They are separate from Nautilus, which has made due to the present day.

Distinctive Features Of Loligo Vulgaris

The distinctive features of Loligo Vulgaris are that the European Loligo swims backward. They have two sidelong balances on the rear piece of their body, giving them an arrow-like appearance. In Dutch, they are also called ‘arrow’ Loligo.


Loligo Vulgaris is found in Atlantic and the Mediterranean. It exists from the North Sea and British Isles to southwest Africa and the Mediterranean.

The European squid is a neritic, semi-demersal animal category, which embraces unmistakable flat and vertical relocations, contingent upon nature. In the Adriatic Sea, European squid can be found above different substrates, from sandy through to the sloppy bottoms.


L. vulgaris is found all through the Mediterranean and in the eastern Atlantic Ocean from the North Sea to the Gulf of Guinea. In British waters, it is basically found in the Irish Sea, along with the south shore of England, and off northern Scotland


The morphology of the Loligo Vulgaris is below:


Mantle is long, decently thin, barrel-shaped.


Balances rhomboid, their length 66% of mantle length, back fringe marginally sunken.


  • Arm sucker rings with 20 teeth, distal teeth huge and pointed, proximal teeth minute or missing.
  • Left ventral arm hectocotylized along it’s distal 1/3 – 2/4 by adjustment of suckers into papillae that diminishing in size distally.


  • Manus of tentacular clubs with 4 longitudinal arrangement of suckers, 2 middle arrangement with 6 developed suckers each.
  • sucker rings of middle arrangement on manus with roughly 30 sporadically estimated teeth; the club with around 36 transverse columns of moment suckers.


Fundamentally the same as Loligo forbesii however recognized quickly by the limb club, the middle suckers of which are particularly extensive. They are up to four times width of minor suckers. Loligo vulgaris can be up to 54 cm long.


Also, it has a little shield-like piece of the body anticipating somewhat over the head. The inward shell is horny and pen-like. The shading shifts and is regularly pink to white with purple darker mottling dorsally. Also generally known as the European squid.

Ecology Of Loligo Vulgaris

The ecology of the Loligo Vulgaris is given below:


Going top to bottom from the surface to around 500 m, and most rich somewhere in the range of 20 and 250 m; most profound in winter. European squid is known to move vertically and on a level plane in light of changes in natural conditions.

The stock in the northeastern Atlantic overwinters in more profound waters off Portugal, approaches the French drift in spring. It then relocates from May through June more remote north into the North Sea where bringing forth happens in profundities from 20 to 80 m.

A southward relocation happens in fall. The stock on the west Saharan angling grounds moreover overwinters in more profound seaward waters and moves coastal for bringing forth in spring and fall.

In like manner, adolescents seem to enroll into the fishery in February and March and among July and September. In the western Mediterranean, European squid moves into more profound water in pre-winter.

The biggest people start their inland relocation as right on time as in January and February, followed in summer by the little ones.

Generating reaches out for a large portion of the year with crests in late-spring and late-summer. Females create up to 20000 little eggs that are kept in coagulated tubes containing several eggs and appended to trash and other hard protests on sandy to sloppy bottoms.

The eggs bring forth after a hatching period going between 25 days (at 22° C) and 45 days (at 12 to 14°C). The number and size of spermatophores are identified with the extent of the male.

Males imitating for the second time ordinarily convey more than those recreating out of the blue. Development is quicker in summer than in winter in both genders.

Food Habits

The rate is more in males as contrasted and females. In the Atlantic, June hatchlings achieve around 12 cm mantle length in December and 13 or 14 cm in the next April.

By August, males reach around 17.5 cm and in April of their second year 21 cm, contrasted with 17 cm in females. In the western Mediterranean, adolescent females and males relocating inland in July measure around 7 and 8 cm separately.

Also, they develop to around 15 and 16 cm in December. Then again, adolescents moving toward the drift in October are roughly 5.7 cm long developing to 8.3 cm towards the finish of December when they leave the shallow waters.

By March they have accomplished a length of 13 cm. After May they blend with the other gathering in another coastal movement to where producing happens. European squid feed on fishes and shellfish. Human flesh consumption is normal.


Although, the behavior of Loligo opalescens as seen by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was broke down. Besides, thirty-nine behavioral segments were recognized and classed into four classifications: chromatic, postural, locomotory, and inking.

The European squid is an economically profitable animal variety. It is gotten in multispecies trawl angling consistently and, occasionally, on the little scale and recreational angling with an assortment of rigging.

In the Adriatic Sea, the aggregate yearly catch of the species is around 1,000 to 1,500 tons. This is extremely factor and is most likely connected to the yearly multiplication cycle that is ordinary for some cephalopods.

Individuals from the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female grown-ups, as a rule, bite the dust not long after bringing forth and agonizing, separately.

Mating conduct: Males perform different showcases to draw in potential females for intercourse. Amid fornication, male handle the female and additions the hectocotylus into the female’s mantle hole where treatment normally happens.

Life Cycle

Life cycle: Embryos bring forth into a planktonic stage and live for quite a while before they become bigger and take up a benthic presence as grown-ups.

Life Span

Lifespan is 2 years in females and around 3 years in males.


Known Hazards Of Loligo Vulgaris

The most widely recognized species eaten in the UK landed for the most part in Scotland and got in the north-east Atlantic by demersal otter trawl. A vast cone-molded net towed over the ocean bed; or dance.

A catching snare on a line twitched in the water to catch the squid, for the most part around evening time. As per the Good Fish Guide, it’s not a decent decision of economical fish to eat. and ought to be just eaten sometimes.

If you do that, go for squid from littler scale fisheries accepting Atlantic and European squid as bycatch, or focused on fisheries utilizing low-affect jigging, for example, Sennen Cove in Cornwall.

Similar Species

Species that are similar to Loligo Vulgaris are:

Fun Facts

Some fun facts of the loligo vulgaris are:

Fun Facts

Apart from being fun, they have some hazards as well.



Amna Shaheen

I have done Bachelors in Computer Software Engineering from Foundation University in 2017. Now, I am doing MS in Project Management and I am a blogger at TapeDaily. I am very passionate about plants and animals. I like to study about them, so I write blogs that are related to plants and animals.

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