Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Bulgarian:
Common Names in Chinese:
Ou Zhou Pu Tao
Common Names in Danish:
Almindelig Vin, Vin, Vinranke, Vinstok
Common Names in English:
Wild Grape, Wine Grape, Common Grapevine, European Grape, Grape, Grapevine, Vine
Common Names in French:
Lambrusque, Vigne, Vigne Cultivée, Vigne Sauvage
Common Names in German:
Echter Weinstock, Rebe, Rebstock, Wein, Wein-Rebe, Weinrebe, Weinstock
Common Names in Greek:
Ambeli, Ambelos (Plant), K Klima (Plant), Stafyli (Fruit), Stafylia
Common Names in Italian:
Ambrusca, Lebrusca, Vite, Vite Comune, Vite Selvatica, Zampino
Common Names in Japanese:
Budou, Yooroppu Budou
Common Names in Portuguese:
Uva, Uva (Brazil), Videira, Videira (Brazil), Videira-Europeia, Vinha, Vinho
Common Names in Russian:
Obyknobennaia Vinogradnaia, Vinograd, Vinograd Kul´turnyi, виноград
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Thai:
, sometimes vines
, rarely small succulent trees
. Stems unarmed
, sometimes with conspicuous
, or bark
(in most species of Vitis) ; branches often swollen at 3-7-lacunar nodes; pith
continuous or interrupted
at nodes; tendrils
, or 4-12-branched (in Parthenocissus), usually leaf-opposed, rarely tendrils absent. Raphide
present in parenchymatous tissues
. Leaves simple, lobed
or unlobed, or digitately or pedately compound
to 1-3-pinnately compound, alternate, distichous, variously toothed
, commonly with multicellular
structures known as "pearl" glands
; stipules 2 or rarely absent, often caducous. Flowers small, with prophylls, in panicles, corymbs, or rarely spikes, often leaf-opposite, pseudo-terminal
, or axillary
(in Cayratia and Tetrastigma), actinomorphic
, hypogynous, 4- or 5(-7 as in Rhoicissus) -merous. Calyx with 4 or 5(-7) small teeth or lobes
or a continuous ring. Petals valvate
, 4 or 5(-7), free
or basally connate
, or distally connate forming a calyptra (e.g.
, in Vitis) . Stamens 4 or 5(-7), antepetalous
, dehiscing longitudinally, tetrasporangiate
or rarely bisporangiate
, ring-shaped, cupular, or gland-shaped. Ovary superior, 2-loculed; ovules 2 per locule; placentation axile
, appearing nearly basal, apotropous
, bitegmic, crassinucellar; style simple, connate; stigma discoid
or capitate, rarely 4-lobed (Tetrastigma), not papillate
. Fruit a berry, 1-4-seeded. Seeds endotestal, with an abaxial
and an adaxial
raphe with 2 furrows
, one on each side; embryo straight, small; endosperm oily, proteinaceous, copious
About 14 genera and ca. 900 species: worldwide, but mostly in tropical and subtropical regions; eight genera and 146 species (87 endemic, two introduced ) in China.
The family is important for grapes, wine, and raisins (especially Vitis vinifera, and several other species and hybrids of Vitis) . There are a few ornamental climbers in the genera Ampelopsis, Cissus, Parthenocissus, and Tetrastigma, of which Parthenocissus tricuspidata of China and Japan and P. quinquefolia of eastern North America are well-known examples. Some plants (e.g., Ampelopsis japonica, Cissus quadrangularis, and Tetrastigma hemsleyanum) are highly regarded medicines.
Lianas, woody, usually polygamo-dioecious
, rarely hermaphroditic
usually shedding; tendrils
leaf-opposed, usually bifurcate
. Leaves simple
, often lobed
, sometimes palmately compound
; stipules usually caducous
. Inflorescence a thyrse
. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx saucer-shaped
; sepals minute. Petals united
at apex and shed as a cap (calyptra) at anthesis
. Stamens opposite to petals, undeveloped
in female flowers. Disk conspicuous
, 5-lobed or ring-shaped. Pistil 1; style slender; stigma slightly expanded. Berry globose
, 2-4-seeded. Seeds obovoid
or obovoid-elliptic, base
, abaxially 1-furrowed with a rounded
, adaxially 2-furrowed; endosperm M-shaped in cross-section.
About 60 species: mostly in temperate regions , extending to the subtropics with the species diversity primarily in China and E North America; 37 species (30 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
Vitis vinifera Linnaeus, the well-known source plant for grapes and wine, has a long history of cultivation all over the world. The wild grape species are primarily distributed in three centers of diversity : East Asia, North to Central America, and Europe to Central Asia. In China, Vitis occurs naturally in all provinces except Xinjiang, Qinghai, Nei Mongol, and Ningxia. The roots , stems, and leaves of several wild species are used as medicine; the berries are edible or used to make wine; and the seeds are sometimes used for oil .
Species Vitis vinifera
Branchlets terete , with longitudinal ridges , glabrous or sparsely pilose ; tendrils bifurcate . Leaves simple , conspicuously 3-5-lobed or cleft ; stipules caducous ; petiole 4-9 cm, nearly glabrous; leaf blade oval , 7-18 × 6-16 cm, basal veins 5, lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs, veinlets inconspicuously raised, base deeply cordate, notch rounded , 2 sides usually overlapping to nearly so, margin 22-27-toothed on each side, teeth large, irregular, and sharp, glabrous or sparsely pilose, apex of midlobes acute. Panicle sparse or dense, opposite to leaves, basal branches well developed, 10-20 cm; peduncle 2-4 cm, glabrous or with sparse arachnoid tomentum . Pedicel 1.5-2.5 mm, glabrous. Buds obovoid , 2-3 mm, apex rounded. Calyx glabrous, undulate . Filaments filiform , 0.6-1 mm; anthers yellow, oval, 0.4-0.8 mm. Pistil entirely abortive in male flowers; ovary oval; style short; stigma expanded. Berry globose or elliptic , 1.5-2 cm in diam. Seeds obovoid to obelliptic, apex subrounded, chalazal knot elliptic, raphe slightly raised, ventral holes broadly furrowed upward ca. 1/4 from base. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 38*. [source]
Habit: Vine , Shrub
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Vitanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Cissus vinifera (L.) Kuntze
Members of the genus Vitis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 142 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
V. acerifolia (Bush Grape) · V. aconitifolia (Monkshoodvine) · V. aestivalis (Pigeon Grape) · V. aestivalis var. aestivalis (Summer Grape) · V. aestivalis var. bicolor (Summer Grape) · V. aestivalis var. lincecumii (Pinewoods Grape) · V. amurensis (Amur Grape) · V. arborea (Peppervine) · V. arizonica (Arizona Grape) · V. bourquina (Grape) · V. brevipedunculata (Amur Peppervine) · V. californica (California Grape) · V. californica 'Roger' (Roger's California Grape) · V. champinii (Champin's Grape) · V. cinerea (Graybark Grape) · V. cinerea Engelm. var. baileyana (Munson) Comeaux (Graybark Grape) · V. cinerea Engelm. var. floridana Munson (Florida Grape) · V. cinerea Engelm. var. helleri (Bailey) M.O.Moore (Heller's Grape) · V. cinerea var. baileyana (Graybark Grape) · V. cinerea var. cinerea (Graybark Grape) · V. cinerea var. floridana (Currant Grape) · V. cinerea var. helleri (Grapevine Rootstock) · V. coignetiae (Crimson Glory Vine) · V. coignetiae 'Frovit' (Crimson Glory Vine) · V. davidii (Spiny Grape) · V. doaniana (Doan's Grape) · V. girdiana (Desert Wild Grape) · V. labrusca (Fox Grape) · V. labruscana (Grape) · V. labrusca 'Alwood' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Catawba' (Catawba Grape) · V. labrusca 'Concord' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Delaware' (Delaware Grape) · V. labrusca 'Eastern Concord' (Eastern Concord Grape) · V. labrusca 'Fredonia' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Glenora' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Himrod' (Himrod Grape) · V. labrusca 'Marquis' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Niagara' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Suffolk' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Venus Seedless' (Grape) · V. monticola (Mountain Grape) · V. mustangensis (Mustang Grape) · V. novae-angliae (Pilgrim Grape) · V. palmata (Catbird Grape) · V. quadrangularis (Winged Treebine) · V. rhombifolia (Grape-Ivy) · V. riparia (Frost Grape) · V. riparia 'Beta' (Beta River-Bank Grape Vitis Riparia) · V. rotundifolia (Bullace) · V. rotundifolia var. munsoniana (Munson's Grape) · V. rotundifolia var. rotundifolia (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Black Beauty' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Black Fry' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Carlos' (Bullace) · V. rotundifolia 'Cowart' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Darlene' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Dixieland' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Dixie Red' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Early Fry' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Farrer' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Florida Fry' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Fry' (Bullace) · V. rotundifolia 'Fry Seedless' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Granny Val' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Higgins' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Hunt' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Ison' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Janebell' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Janet' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Jumbo' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Late Fry' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Magnolia' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Nesbit' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Noble' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Pam' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Pineapple' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Rosa' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Scarlet' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Scuppernong' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Southland' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Sugargate' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Summit' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Supreme' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Sweet Jenny' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Tara' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Triumph' (Muscadine) · V. rupestris (Sand Grape) · V. shuttleworthii (Calloose Grape) · V. sicyoides (Pudding-Whit) · V. slavinii (Slavin's Grape) · V. tiliifolia (West Indian Grape) · V. vinifera (Wild Grape) · V. vinifera L. 'Boskoop Glory' (Blue Table Grape) · V. vinifera sylvestris (Wild Grape) · V. vinifera vinifera (Cultivated Winegrape) · V. vinifera [infrasp.unranked] caribaea (Common Grapevine) · V. vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Grape Vine) · V. vinifera 'Chasselas De Moissac' (Dessert Grape) · V. vinifera 'Flame Seedless' (Flame Seedless Grape)
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652168
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-28629
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:69139-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 41905
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 28629
- IUCN ID: 248757
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: VIVI5
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 68496
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- Mean = 229.090 meters (751.608 feet), Standard Deviation = 329.400 based on 1,997 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]