, or woody lianas, evergreen
or deciduous, rarely subherbaceous. Indumentum of simple
hairs, or multicellular
hairs secreting calcium oxalate
and forming scales
or present beneath
cuticle and making leaf blade
and sometimes translucent
. Leaves opposite, subopposite, whorled
, spiraled, or alternate, usually petiolate
, estipulate; petiole
and thornlike; leaf blade simple, margin
entire or subentire
, sometimes toothed
often present between crenations
margin and at base
or on petiole. Inflorescences terminal
, or extra-axillary
, spikes, branched spikes, racemes
, panicles, or sometimes capitula, bracteate
. Flowers usually regular, rarely slightly zygomorphic, usually bisexual
, sometimes bisexual and male flowers present in same inflorescence. Receptacle surrounding and adnate
to ovary and extended into a short or long calyx tube
distally (together termed "calyx tube" in this treatment) ; lobes
4 or 5(-8), valvate
in bud, persistent or deciduous, sometimes almost absent. Petals 4 or 5, inserted
of calyx tube, imbricate or valvate in bud, conspicuous
or not, or absent. Stamens usually 2 Ã— as many as calyx lobes in 2 series, inserted inside distal part of calyx tube, included
in or exserted from calyx tube; filaments
in bud; anthers
, usually versatile, dehiscing longitudinally. Disk usually present, intrastaminal
. Ovary inferior, 1-loculed; ovules 2(-6), pendulous, anatropous
, usually only 1 developing; style 1, simple, usually free
from distal part of calyx tube, subulate
; stigma capitate or inconspicuous. Fruit a pseudocarp, very variable in shape
and size, fleshy
or dry, 1-seeded, usually indehiscent, often longitudinally 2-5-winged, -ridged, or -angled; endocarp not or at least partly sclerenchymatous
. Cotyledons convolute, folded, or twisted. Endosperm absent.
About 20 genera and ca. 500 species: widespread in tropics and subtropics; six genera and 20 species (one endemic) in China.
Tan et al. (J. Plant. Res. 115: 475-481. 2002) inferred a phylogeny of the Chinese genera from nuclear , plastid, and spacer sequences based on 16 species in 19 samples . The mangrove genera Lumnitzera and Laguncularia Gaertner were placed as sister taxa in a clade sister to the other genera in China plus Conocarpus Linnaeus. The latter group comprised two clades: one with Conocarpus sister to an unresolved grouping of Terminalia and Anogeissus; the other with Getonia sister to Quisqualis and Combretum.
, often very large and buttressed
, rarely shrubs
. Branches often in tiers
. Leaves spiraled, alternate, subopposite, or opposite, often crowded into pseudowhorls at apices of branchlets
; leaf blade
, or orbicular
, often minutely verruculose
(from calcium oxalate
crystals), often with domatia, often with 2 or more glands
at or above leaf blade base
or on petiole
. Inflorescences axillary
spikes or racemes
, sometimes panicles, with bisexual
flowers toward base of inflorescence and male flowers toward apex. Calyx tube
proximally broadly cylindric
, distally cupular or sometimes scarcely developed; lobes
4 or 5, deltoid or ovate
. Petals absent. Stamens 8 or 10. Fruit variable in size and shape
, often fleshy
and drupelike, sometimes dry and leathery or corky, often longitudinally 2-5-winged, or -ridged, sometimes weakly so; endocarp usually at least partly sclerenchymatous
About 150 species: tropics of Africa, America, and Asia, extending to S Africa, Australia, and Pacific islands; six species in China.
Biome: Terrestrial .
Ecology: A tree confined to lowland rainforest..
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Myrtales () - Reichenbach, 1828
- Superorder: Myrtanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Terminalia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 20 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. alata (Indian Laurel) · T. amazonia (White Olive) · T. arbuscula (White Olive) · T. arjuna (White Marudah) · T. bellirica (Myrobalan) · T. bentzoe bentzoe (Benjoin) · T. bialata (Indian Silver-Grey Wood) · T. brassii (Brown Terminalia) · T. buceras (Gregorywood) · T. carolinensis (Terminalia) · T. catappa (Badamier) · T. chebula (Myrobalan) · T. citrina (Yellow Myrobalan) · T. complanata (Pale-Yellow Terminalia) · T. ivorensis (Black Afara) · T. kaernbachii (Brown Terminalia) · T. muelleri (Australian Almond) · T. myriocarpa (East Indian Almond) · T. paniculata (Kindal) · T. superba (Superb Terminalia)
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 145.
- A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more inte by Henry Trimen. London: Dulau, 1893-1931. url p. 158, p. 160.
- A manual of Indian timbers; an account of the growth, distribution, and uses of the trees and shrubs of India and Ceylon with descriptions of their wood-structure, by J. S. Gamble... London: S. Low, Marston & co. ltd., 1902. url p. 337.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 153.
- Flora Malesiana. general editor, C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, 1950- url p. 555.
- New or noteworthy Philippine plants. .. / by Elmer D. Merrill. Manila: Bureau of Public Printing, 1904-1922. url p. 31, p. 32.
- Select extra-tropical plants readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation with indications of their native countries and some of their uses / by Baron Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: R. S. Brain, govt. printer, 1895. url p. 526, p. 621.
- Select extra-tropical plants, readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation, with indications of their native countries and some of their uses. By Baron Ferd. von Mueller. .. Sydney, T. Richards, government printer, 1881. url p. 387.
- The Philippine journal of science. 4 1909 Manila. url p. 646, p. 647.
- Hsu Ting-zhi. 1984. Combretaceae. In: Chen Cheih, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 53(1): 1-28.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Terminalia parviflora. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 05February2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 7143840
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 171310-1
- IUCN ID: 245720
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3842771
- Jie Chen & Nicholas J. Turland "Combretaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 309. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Terminalia". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 309, 310. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Terminalia parviflora. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 February 2012. [back]