font settings and languages

Font Size: Large | Normal | Small
Font Face: Verdana | Geneva | Georgia
Languages:

Sequoia sempervirens

(California Redwood)

Overview

[ Back to top ]

Vulnerable

Threat status

Interesting Facts

[ Back to top ]

Common Names

[ Back to top ]

Common Names in English:

California Redwood, Coast Redwood, Redwood

Description

[ Back to top ]

Family Cupressaceae

Trees or shrubs evergreen , monoecious or dioecious. Leaves decussate or in whorls of 3, scalelike and then often dimorphic with flattened facial leaves and keeled lateral leaves, or needlelike particularly in juvenile plants , often with an abaxial resin gland . Pollen cones terminal or axillary , solitary, maturing and shed annually; microsporophylls 6-16, decussate or whorled , each bearing (2 or) 3-6(-9) pollen sacs ; pollen wingless. Seed cones usually terminal, solitary, globose , ovoid , or oblong , dehiscent or indehiscent when mature in 1st or 2nd(or 3rd) year; cone scales developing after ovules originate in bract axils; bracts almost completely enveloped by cone scales, free only at apex; ovules 1-numerous per bract axil, erect ; cone scales of mature cones 3-16, flat or peltate, woody, leathery, or succulent, 1-20-seeded. Seeds winged or not; wings derived from seed coat . Cotyledons usually 2, rarely 3-6. Germination epigeal.

Nineteen genera and ca. 125 species: worldwide; eight genera (one introduced ) and 46 species (16 endemic, 13 introduced) in China.[1]

Tribe Senecioneae

The Senecioneae are a tribe of closely related genera that can be recognized most readily by the nature of the pappus and the involucral bracts or phyllaries. The phyllaries are basically in one well developed, often partially or wholly connate series of equal length that closely envelope the head . Frequently there are a few, very much smaller and mostly randomly distributed, often necrotic-tipped bracts near the base of the main series. The pappus is of fine, soft, often pure white capillary hairs . Heads may be either discoid or radiate . -- Gerald Carr.

Genus Sequoia

Trees giant, evergreen . Branchlets terete , with obvious annual growth constrictions. Leaves alternate, mostly in 2 ranks . Adult leaves linear or linear-lanceolate to deltate, generally flattened, divergent to strongly appressed ; abaxial glands absent. Pollen cones with 6--12 sporophylls, each sporophyll with 2--6 pollen sacs . Seed cones maturing and opening in 1 season , oblong to globose ; scales persistent , 15--30, valvate , ± peltate, thick and woody. Seeds 2--7 per scale, lenticular , narrowly 2-winged; cotyledons 2(--4). x = 11.[2]

Physical Description

Species Sequoia sempervirens

Trees to ca. 110 m ; trunk to 9 m diam.; crown conic and monopodial when young, narrowed conic in age. Bark reddish brown, to ca. 35 cm thick, fibrous , ridged and furrowed . Branches downward sweeping to slightly ascending . Leaves 1--30 mm, generally with stomates on both surfaces, the free portion to 30 mm, those on leaders , ascending branchlets , and fertile shoots divergent to strongly appressed , short-lanceolate to deltate, those on horizontally spreading to drooping branchlets mostly linear to linear-lanceolate, divergent and in 2 ranks , with 2 prominent , white abaxial stomatal bands . Pollen cones nearly globose to ovoid , 2--5 mm, borne singly on short terminal or axillary stalks . Seed cones 1.3--3.5 cm. Seeds flattened, 3--6 mm, leathery. 2 n = 66. [source]

Redwood is the only naturally occurring hexaploid conifer. It is one of only a few vegetatively reproducing conifers (from stump sprouts) and possibly the tallest tree species known. Winter buds , though small, are evident. [source]

Habit: TreeGrowth Form: Single StemShape and Orientation: Erect

Flowers: Bloom Period: FallFlower Color: Yellow • Flower Conspicuous: No

Seeds: Seed per Pound: 95200 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: High • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: No

Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Dense • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: Yes

Size/Age/Growth

Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Rapid • Mature Height (feet): 250.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 60 • Size: over 40' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan

Habitat

Coastal redwood forests ; generally below 300 m , occasionally to 1000 m[3].

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).[4]

Ecology: List of Habitats :

Biology

[ Back to top ]

Reproduction

Duration: PerennialCoppice Potential: Yes • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: Yes • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: SpringFruit/Seed Period End: FallFruit/Seed Persistence: Yes

Growth

Culture: Space 20-30' apart.

Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 5.0 • Maximum pH: 7.0 • Fertility Requirement: Low

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant

Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 20 • Maximum Precipitation: 200 • Moisture Use: Medium

Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): 7 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 180 • Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)

Taxonomy

[ Back to top ]

Synonyms

Descr. Pinus 2: 24. 1824 • Gigantabies taxifolia J. Nelson • Taxodium sempervirens D. Don in Lambert

Notes

Publishing author : Endl. Publication : Syn. Conif. 198. 1847 [May-Jun 1847]

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Comment: Conservation status: NT, Habit: Tree

Last scrutiny: 5-Jun-2008

Was formerly included under the family Taxodiaceae. The Taxodiaceae is now merged with Cupressaceae (see Farjon 2001).[5].

Similar Species

[ Back to top ]

Members of the genus Sequoia

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

S. sempervirens (California Redwood) · S. sempervirens f. glauca (Blue Coast Redwood) · S. sempervirens 'Adpressa' (Coast Redwood) · S. sempervirens 'Aptos Blue' (Aptos Blue Coast Redwood) · S. sempervirens 'Cantab' (Coast Redwood) · S. sempervirens 'Filoli' (Coast Redwood) · S. sempervirens 'Monty' (Majestic Beauty® Coast Redwood) · S. sempervirens 'Santa Cruz' (San Cruz Redwood) · S. sempervirens 'Simpson's Silver' (Simpson's Silver Coast Redwood) · S. sempervirens 'Soquel' (Coast Redwood)

More Info

[ Back to top ]

Further Reading

[ Back to top ]

Notes

[ Back to top ]

Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Liguo Fu, Yong-fu Yu, Robert P. Adams & Aljos Farjon "Cupressaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 62. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Frank D. Watson "Sequoia". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. "Sequoia sempervirens". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  4. Mean = 166.250 meters (545.440 feet), Standard Deviation = 403.630 based on 499 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
  5. Farjon, A. & members of the Conifer Specialist Group 2006. Sequoia sempervirens. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-23