to tall trees
or rarely deciduous ( Cassytha a parasitic vine
with leaves reduced to scales
), usually aromatic
. Leaves alternate, rarely whorled
or opposite, simple
, without stipules, petiolate
. Leaf blade
: unlobed (unlobed or lobed
in Sassafras ), margins
entire, occasionally with domatia (crevices or hollows serving as lodging for mites
) in axils of main lateral
veins (in Cinnamomum ) . Inflorescences in axils of leaves or deciduous bracts, panicles (rarely heads
cymes, or pseudoumbels (spikes in Cassytha ), sometimes enclosed by decussate bracts. Flowers bisexual
, bisexual only, or staminate
on different plants
, or staminate and bisexual on some plants, pistillate and bisexual on others; flowers usually yellow to greenish or white, rarely reddish; hypanthium well developed, resembling calyx tube
, tepals and stamens perigynous; tepals 6(-9), in 2(-3) whorls of 3, sepaloid
, equal or rarely unequal, if unequal then usually outer 3 smaller than inner 3 (occasionally absent in Litsea ) ; stamens (3-) 9(-12), in whorls of 3, but 1 or more whorls frequently staminodial or absent; stamens of 3d whorl with 2 glands
2- or 4-locular, locules opening by valves
; pistil 1, 1-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; placentation basal; ovule 1; stigma subsessile
or capitate. Fruits drupes, drupe borne on pedicel with or without persistent
tepals at base, or seated in ± deeply cup-shaped receptacle (cupule), or enclosed in accrescent
. Seed 1; endosperm absent.
Genera ca. 50, species 2000-3000 (9 genera, 13 species in the flora ) : pantropical , a few species also in subtropical and temperate regions
Cassytha is sometimes placed in its own family , Cassythaceae; it is here retained in Lauraceae.
], deciduous [or evergreen
]. Leaves alternate, not aromatic
. Leaf blade
pinnately veined, rarely with 3 primary
veins, leathery; surfaces glabrous
or variously pubescent
; domatia absent. Inflorescences appearing with or before new leaves, axillary
, pseudoumbels, subtended by decussate bracts. Flowers unisexual
on different plants
; tepals deciduous, yellow, green, or white, equal, glabrous. Staminate flowers
: stamens 9 (or 12) ; anthers
4-locular, 4-valved, introrse
. Pistillate flowers: staminodes 9 (or 12) ; ovary globose
. Drupe red, globose, seated in small, single-rimmed cupule.
Species ca. 400: North America, Mexico, Central America, mostly in Asia.
Mexico has four species of Litsea, one of which extends to Costa Rica in Central America. Litsea merits revision and, as accepted here, it is probably polyphyletic. It is very similar to Lindera and best recognized by its 4-locular anthers (2-locular in Lindera ).
Biome: Terrestrial .
Ecology: A tree occurring in lowland wet evergreen forest ..
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Order: Laurales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Lauranae () - (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Litsea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Green, M.J.B. and Gunawardena, E.R. N. (comps.) 1997. Designing an optimum protected areas system for Sri Lanka's natural forests. Prepared by IUCN-The World Conservation Union and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre for the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations. (unpublished).
- Gunatilleke, C.V.S. and I.A.U.N. 1985. A conservation and protection plan for the Sinharaja Forest. Draft. Includes list of plants and their uses and endemism (unpublished).
- Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. and Gunatilleke, C.V.S. 1991. Threatened woody endemics of the wet lowlands of Sri Lanka and their conservation. Biological Conservation 55(1): 17-36.
- Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
- Wood, C. E. Jr. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39: 296-346.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Litsea iteodaphne. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 01February2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3479925
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 465754-1
- IUCN ID: 220181
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1020925
- Henk van der Werff "Lauraceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Henk van der Werff "Litsea". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Litsea iteodaphne. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]