Common Names in English:
Broad-Leaved Twayblade, Listera convallarioides Orchid, Broad Lipped Twayblade, Broad-Lip Twayblade, Broadleaf Twayblade, Broadlipped Listera, Broadlipped Twayblade, Scutcheon Twayblade, Wedge-Lip
Herbs or rarely vines
, rarely annual
, strongly mycotrophic, epiphytic, terrestrial
, lithophytic, or rarely aquatic
, usually green and photosynthetic, some without chlorophyll and saprophytic
subterranean or aerial
or stolonoid, usually with spongy
, multilayered velamen. Stems erect
or pendent or modified into creeping
or sympodially or monopodially branched, delicate to stout, or thickened as corms or pseudobulbs
, or greatly reduced, sometimes proliferous (especially diverse
in sympodial orchids) . Leaves solitary, several, or reduced to scales
, basal or cauline, alternate, distichous, or sometimes opposite or whorled
, either convolute or duplicate
, simple, sessile or petiolate
; stipules absent; blade
or not, plicate
, triangular, or laterally flattened, margins
entire. Inflorescences terminal
, spikes, panicles, or rarely cymose
, erect or variously pendent, 1 many-flowered, lax
or dense, flowering successively or simultaneously. Flowers bisexual
, resupinate or not, pedicellate
or sessile, 3-merous, usually bilaterally symmetric
[rarely nearly radially symmetric], with abscission layer between pedicel and peduncle, rarely between ovary and perianth or ovary and pedicel; perianth of 6 tepals in 2 whorls, all petaloid
or sepals sometimes greener and more foliaceous
; sepals alike or not, lateral sepals often connate
(forming synsepal), or all 3 sepals variously connate and/or adnate
; petals 3, median
petal modified as lip, commonly larger or differing in form and color, lateral petals commonly but not always similar to sepals; nectaries of various sorts; extrafloral nectaries sometimes present on pedicels, bracts, or leaf sheaths
; stamens usually 1 2( 3, if 3 the 3d modified into sterile
staminode), all on side opposite lip, fully or partially adnate to style, forming column; pollen grains
, usually in 2 8 pollinia, sometimes subdivided into small packets, rarely granular
, sometimes pollinia with caudicles
and/or stipes; gynoecium 3-carpellate, connate, forming compound
, inferior, 1- or 3-locular ovary; style variously adnate to filaments
; stigmas usually 3-lobed, concave
, part of median stigma lobe
modified into rostellum
, often separating anther
portions of stigma, commonly preventing or in some cases facilitating self-pollination
; ovules numerous
, minute. Fruits capsules, opening (dehiscing) by longitudinal
slits, rarely fleshy
and indehiscent berries
. Seeds numerous (millions in some species), minute; endosperm absent.
Genera ca. 800, species 22,000 35,000 (701 genera, 208 species in the flora ; 1 genus, 6 species introduced) : worldwide except Antarctica, most diverse in tropical forests .
The overall count for orchid genera in the flora includes Spathoglottis plicata Blume, which was recently reported from Palm Beach County, Florida. The plants , known locally since 1982, are apparently widely naturalized in old shellpits. The number of species in the flora includes one newly recognized species in Habenaria that is morphologically described, but not fully treated here. Orchidaceae are by far the largest and most diverse monocot family and rank among the largest families of flowering plants. An accurate account of the number of genera and species has eluded orchid scientists, and species counts published in the last 20 years range from 15,000 to 35,000. New species are continually being described. In addition, numerous natural and artificial hybrids exist.
Although orchids are important in horticulture , most of the plants traded in the national and international market belong to a small number of species and their hybrids in only a few genera; the majority of orchids are not commonly cultivated. Few orchids are economically important outside the horticultural trade: the fruits of several species of Vanilla are the source of the spice vanilla, and the dry roots of some species of Dactylorhiza, Eulophia, and Orchis are made into salep, a flour consumed in northern Africa, the Middle East (especially Turkey), and Asia. Some species are locally used for medicinal purposes; the mucilage from pseudobulbs of several species is sometimes used as glue; and in the Far East the stems of some species of Dendrobium are split into strips used to weave handicrafts. A few orchids have been found to cause contact dermatitis (e.g. , Cypripedium reginae) .
Orchids range vegetatively from Lilliputian plants a few millimeters long (Bulbophyllum Thouars and Platystele Schlechter) to gigantic clusters weighing several hundred kilograms (Grammatophyllum Blume) to some as much as 13.4 meters in height (Sobralia altissima D. E. Bennett & Christenson, a recently described species from Peru) . Likewise, flowers vary in size from less than 1 mm and barely visible to the naked eye (Platystele Garay), to 15 20 cm diameter (some Paphiopedilum Pfitzer, Phragmipedium Rolfe, and Cattleya Lindley spp. ), and ultimately to 76 cm [Phragmipedium caudatum (Lindley) Rolfe]. Weight can vary from a fraction of a gram (many Pleurothallus R. Brown spp.) to nearly 100 grams (Coryanthes Hooker spp.) . Their fragrances vary from delightful (Cattleya Lindley) to repulsive and unbearable (in some species of Bulbophyllum Thouars) . The plants colonize habitats ranging from some of the driest and hottest places on earth to the wettest and coolest, literally occurring from polar regions to the equator. Within the monocots, the most important diagnostic features of Orchidaceae are reduction of adaxial stamens, fusion of the remaining stamens to the gynoecium forming the column, aggregation of pollen into compact pollinia (present elsewhere only in the dicots , in Asclepiadaceae), differentiation of the median petal into the lip, a sometimes complex organ, and the exceedingly small size of the seed, which lacks endosperm. Among other distinguishing characteristics: pollen in the pollinia is usually not available as a nutrient-source (Cleistes Richard ex Lindley being a notable exception), and the often complex interaction with pollinators culminates in the phenomenon of pseudocopulation in several genera (e.g., Ophrys Linnaeus, Caladenia R. Brown sect. Calonema, Drakaea Lindley) . In the latter process , the flower mimics the appearance , the smell, and often the movements of a female wasp, attracting a male of a suitable species that tries to copulate with the flower. It usually only succeeds in becoming attached to a pollinium , which will then be transferred if the male tries to copulate with another flower.
Roots of orchids may be covered with velamen, spongy layers derived from the epidermis ; fleshy thickenings of roots are tuberoids (tubers being restricted to stems) . Stems may be swollen or thickened, underground corms or aerial pseudobulbs. Flowers are often resupinate: the lip (modified median petal) is lowermost, usually as a result of the pedicel being twisted or bent in its development by 180°. Pedicellate ovary, usually used in reference to length , refers to the combined pedicel and ovary. Flowers are not always borne on pedicels; when they are, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a slender ovary and the pedicel. Consequently, because of their slender ovaries, flowers of a racemose spike appear to be pedicellate even though they are sessile, while a spicate raceme has pedicels so short that they appear to be absent. Orchid flowers often have a modified median sepal, the dorsal sepal. Sepals coalescing at their tips form a synsepal. The middle portion of the upper (adaxial) face of the lip is the disc: it may be a thickened callus and may bear hairs , papillae, or other ornamentation. In orchids the style, stigmas, filaments, and one or more anthers are united to form a column; appendages projecting laterally from the stigma are column wings; the lip may be attached to the protrusion at the base of the column to form a column foot ; lateral sepals that are also attached to the foot form a mentum (chin) . In most orchids the column bears a single anther at its apex; the clinandrium is the cavity within which the anther is borne or embedded . Pollen is borne in discrete masses (pollinia) . Genera with mealy (sectile) pollinia may have pollinia within the anther tapering into a caudicle (stalk ), which is attached to a sticky viscidium . Those with waxy pollinia have pollinia attached to one or two stipes (of stigmatic origin and formed outside the anther), which in turn are attached to a viscidium. The various aggregations of pollinia, caudicles, stipes, and viscidium form a pollinarium , the pollination unit carried by pollinators. The median stigma lobe may have a slender extension or little beak (rostellum), which aids in gluing the pollinarium to the pollinator.
. Stems slender to stout, glabrous
to leaves; cauline bracts 2(-3), enclosing base
of stem. Leaves 2(-3, rarely), at apex of stem, opposite or subopposite, sessile, glabrous. Inflorescences terminal
, 2-100-flowered racemes
; peduncle and rachis densely glandular-pubescent
bracts inconspicuous, lanceolate, elliptic
, suborbiculate-ovate, rhombic-ovate, or oblong
. Flowers resupinate, maroon-purple, yellowish green to dark green, blue-green, or pinkish tan; dorsal sepal ovate-elliptic, elliptic-obovate, linear-elliptic, or lanceolate; lateral
sepals semiorbiculate-elliptic, ovate
, linear-elliptic, or oblong-lanceolate, often falcate-recurved; petals reflexed
, or connivent, linear
, linear-oblong to lanceolate, or elliptic, falcate
; lip prominently deflexed
or not, sessile or clawed, linear-oblong to obovate
, suborbiculate-ovate, or ovate-reniform, base of lip with or without prominent
, apex deeply 2-lobed, dilated
, pair of horns, or with 1-2 lamellae; column arcuate
, thick, short, apex expanded or not; anther
side of column near apex; pollinia 2, yellow, soft; ovaries pedicellate
. Fruits capsules, horizontal to semierect, ellipsoid
, or subglobose, glabrous or glabrate to glandular-pubescent.
Species 25: cool temperate regions , Northern and Southern hemispheres.
Species Listera convallarioides
5-37 cm, somewhat stoloniferous
. Stems green, succulent, glabrous
green, broadly ovate
2-7 × 1.5-5.8 cm, apex obtuse
to rarely acute or apiculate
Inflorescences 5-20-flowered, lax
, 20-120 mm; floral
rhombic-ovate to lanceolate, 3-5 × 1-2.5 mm, apex acute to
acuminate; peduncle and rachis densely whitish glandular-pubescent
Flowers yellowish green, sometimes faintly tinged with purple; pedicels
slender, 2.5-7 mm, glandular-pubescent; ovary glandular-pubescent,
as it matures
; sepals and petals reflexed
from column and lip; dorsal sepal ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, 4.5-5
× 1.5-2 mm, apex obtuse to acute; lateral
, 4.5-5.5 × 1.5-1.8 mm, apex acute to obtuse; petals
, falcate, 4-5 × 0.8-1 mm; lip cuneate, apex dilated
and shallowly notched
, lateral lobes rounded
, with small tooth
, tapering to short, slender claw
, with indistinct triangular
tooth on either side of base
above claw, 8-13 × 5-7 mm, margins
minutely bristly-ciliate; column arcuate, slender, 2.5-3.5(-4) ×
1 mm, apex slightly expanded. Capsules ellipsoid
, 8 × 5 mm,
essentially glabrous. 2n = 36. [source]
Listera convallarioides has a relatively large flower compared to most of the other listeras. It crosses with L. auriculata to produce a natural hybrid L. × veltmanii Case. [source]
Habit: Forb/herb • Growth Form: Rhizomatous • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 195000 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Low • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 1.0 • Size: 6-12" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Rich humus in open woods to boggy meadows, soil circumneutral or at most only mildly acid, prefers cool soil; widespread across northern part of continent, extending southward only at high elevations ; 100--2600 m .
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: Yes • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: High • Salinity Tolerance: Low • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 7.5 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: None • Minimum Precipitation: 16 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: High
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -38 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 120 • Cold Hardiness: 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- Orchid Family
- R. Brown, Hortus Kew. 5: 201. 1813.
- [For Martin Lister (1638-1711), noted English physician and naturalist]
- Specific epithet:
- (Swartz) Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina. 2: 494. 1823.
- Botanical name: - Listera convallarioides (Swartz) Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina. 2: 494. 1823.
- Specific epithet: convallarioides - (Swartz) Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina. 2: 494. 1823.
- Genus: Listera () - R. Brown, Hortus Kew. 5: 201. 1813. - [For Martin Lister (1638-1711), noted English physician and naturalist]
- Tribe: Neottieae ()
- Subfamily: Epidendroideae ()
- Family: Orchidaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Orchid Family
- Order: Asparagales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Bifolium convallarioides (Swartz) Nieuwland • Diphryllum convallarioides (Swartz) Kuntze • Epipactis convallarioides Swartz • Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21: 232. 1800 • Listera eschscholziana Chamisso • Ophrys convallarioides (Sw.) W. Wight • Ophrys convallarioides (Swartz) W. Wight Ex House
: This is a natural hybrid
Originator name: This is a natural hybrid
Members of the genus Listera
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 18 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
L. (Listera Orchid) · L. auriculata (Auricled Twayblade) · L. australis (Southern Twayblade) · L. borealis (Big Ears) · L. caurina (Northwest Twayblade) · L. convallarioides (Broad-Leaved Twayblade) · L. cordata (Heart-Leaved Twayblade) · L. cordata var. cordata (Heartleaf Twayblade) · L. cordata var. nephrophylla (Heartleaf Twayblade) · L. ovata (Widehead Groundsel) · L. japonica (Listera Japonica Orchid) · L. makinoana (Listera Makinoana Orchid) · L. nipponica (Listera Nipponica Orchid) · L. ovata (Common Twayblade) · L. smallii (Kidney-Leaf Twayblade) · L. veltmanii (Veltman's Listera) · L. x veltmanii (Veltman's Listera) · L. yatabei (Listera Yatabei Orchid)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums: University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Burke Museum: Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium (WTU)
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Oregon State University: Vascular Plant Collection
- University of Alaska Museum of the North: University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium (ALA)
- University of Colorado Museum: Zoological specimens
- USDA PLANTS: USDA PLANTS Database
- Utah State University: USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2663107
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-43633
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:641523-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 43633
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMORC1N050
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: LICO5
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 44475
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