Common Names in English:
, monoecious or dioecious. Leaves decussate or in whorls of 3, scalelike and then often dimorphic
with flattened facial leaves and keeled
leaves, or needlelike particularly in juvenile plants
, often with an abaxial
. Pollen cones terminal
, solitary, maturing and shed annually; microsporophylls
6-16, decussate or whorled
, each bearing (2 or) 3-6(-9) pollen sacs
; pollen wingless. Seed cones usually terminal, solitary, globose
, or oblong
or indehiscent when mature
in 1st or 2nd(or 3rd) year; cone scales developing after ovules originate in bract axils; bracts almost completely enveloped by cone scales, free
only at apex; ovules 1-numerous per bract axil, erect
; cone scales of mature cones 3-16, flat or peltate, woody, leathery, or succulent, 1-20-seeded. Seeds winged
or not; wings
derived from seed coat
. Cotyledons usually 2, rarely 3-6. Germination epigeal.
Nineteen genera and ca. 125 species: worldwide; eight genera (one introduced ) and 46 species (16 endemic, 13 introduced) in China.
, 3--6 angled
, variously oriented, but not in flattened sprays
. Leaves opposite in 4 ranks
or in whorls of 3. Adult
leaves closely appressed
to divergent, scalelike to subulate
portion to ca.
10 mm (to ca. 15 mm in Juniperus communis ) ; abaxial
visible or not, elongate
( J. ashei ), sometimes exuding white crystalline deposit. Pollen cones with 3--7 pairs or trios of sporophylls, each sporophyll with 2--8 pollen sacs
. Seed cones maturing in 1 or 2 years, globose
and berrylike, 3--20 mm, remaining closed
, usually glaucous; scales
, 1--3 pairs, peltate, tightly coalesced
, thick and fleshy
to obscurely woody. Seeds 1--3 per scale, round
, wingless; cotyledons 2--6. x
Species ca. 60: primarily Northern Hemisphere, 1 in e Africa.
Juniperus is the only dioecious (sometimes monoecious) genus of Cupressaceae in the flora . Cones, generally terminal , are axillary in J. communis.
Numerous cultivars of Juniperus species are widely used for landscaping. Mutants , or "sports," affecting plant habit and foliage are present in all species and are likely related to single-gene mutations . Many have been given formal names or incorrectly ascribed to hybridization. Gymnocarpy (bare seeds protruding from the cone), caused by insect larvae (T. A. Zanoni 1978), is occasionally found in most junipers, particularly in the southwestern United States. Specimens with such aberrations may be almost impossible to identify without chemical data.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Order: Cupressales ()
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Burnett
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Juniperus Foetida Excelsa • Juniperus foetida Spach var. excelsa (M. Bieb.) Spach • Juniperus Sabinnna Excelsa • Juniperus sabinnna L. var. excelsa (M. Bieb.) Georgi • Sabina Excelsa
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 5-Jun-2008
Members of the genus Juniperus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 184 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
J. ashei (Ashe Juniper) · J. bermudiana (Bermuda Cedar) · J. californica (California Juniper) · J. cedrus (Canary Island Juniper) · J. chinensis (Blue Pfitzer Juniper) · J. chinensis holbert (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis L. var. procumbens Siebold ex Endl. 'Sargentii' (Sargent Juniper) · J. chinensis L. var. sargentii A.Henry (Sargent Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis L. var. sargentii A.Henry 'Viridis' (Green Sargent`s Juniper) · J. chinensis L. 'Ames' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis L. 'Maney' (Maney Juniper) · J. chinensis L. 'Mint Julep' (Mint Julep Juniper) · J. chinensis L. 'Old Gold' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis L. 'Robusta Green' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis nicks (Nicks Compact Juniper) · J. chinensis sargentii 'Glauca' (Blue Sargent`s Juniper) · J. chinensis sea (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis var. armstrongii (Armstrong Juniper) · J. chinensis var. hetzii (Hetz Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis var. keteleeri (Keteleer Juniper) · J. chinensis var. Pfitzerana Aurea (Pfitz Gold Tip Juniper) · J. chinensis var. pfitzeriana (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis var. Pfitz Glauca (Pfitz Blue Juniper) · J. chinensis var. Shimpaku (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis var. torulosa (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Aurea' (Gold Coast Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Bakaurea' (Gold Star® Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Blue Alps' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Blue Point' (Blue Point Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Compressa' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Daub' (Daub's Frosted Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Femina' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Golden Blaauw' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Gold Coast' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Hetzii Columnaris' (Green Columnar Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Hetzii Glauca' (Hetz Blue Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Hook's #6' (Hook's #6 Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Kaizuka' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Kaizuka Variegata' (Variegated Hollywood Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Mac's Golden' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Mission' (Mission Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Monlep' (Mint Julep® Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Mountbatten' (Mountbatten Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Parsonsii' (Chinese Juniper) · J. Chinensis 'Pyrmidalis' (Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Saybrook Gold' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Sea Green' (Sea Green Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Spartan' (Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Spearmint' (Spearmint Chinese Juniper) · J. chinensis 'Variegated Parsonii' (Chinese Juniper) · J. coahuilensis (Coahuila Juniper) · J. communis (Carpet Juniper Juniperus Communis) · J. communis compressa var. Compressa (Common Juniper) · J. communis depressa var. depressa (Canadian Juniper) · J. communis L. var. communis L. (Common Juniper) · J. communis L. var. megistocarpa Fern. & St. John (Common Juniper) · J. communis L. var. montana Aiton (Common Juniper) · J. communis oblonga (Common Juniper) · J. communis var. depressa (Common Juniper) · J. communis var. montana (Common Juniper) · J. communis 'Aureopicta' (Common Juniper) · J. communis 'Banff' (Common Juniper) · J. communis 'Berkshire' (Common Juniper) · J. communis 'Compacta Aurea' (Common Juniper) · J. communis 'Depressa Aurea' (Common Juniper) · J. communis 'Golden Schnapps' (Common Juniper) · J. communis 'Gold Cone' (Common Juniper) · J. communis 'Gold Totem Pole' (Common Juniper) · J. communis 'Green Carpet' (Carpet Juniper) · J. communis 'Hibernica' (Irish Juniper) · J. communis 'Mondap' (Alpine Carpet® Juniper) · J. communis 'Oblonga Pendula' (Carpet Juniper) · J. communis 'Suecia Nana' (Common Juniper) · J. conferta 'Blue Pacific' (Blue Pacific Shore Juniper) · J. conferta 'Blue Tosho' (Shore Juniper) · J. conferta 'Emerald Sea' (Emerald Sea Shore Juniper) · J. conferta 'Irozam' (Iron Age Juniper) · J. conferta 'Silver Mist' (Silver Mist Juniper) · J. davurica 'Expansa Variegata' (Variegated Dahurian Juniper) · J. deppeana (Alligator Juniper) · J. deppeana var. sperryi (Alligator Juniper) · J. drupacea (Syrian Juniper) · J. excelsa (Indian Juniper) · J. flaccida (Drooping Juniper) · J. horizontalis (Creeping Cedar) · J. horizontalis 'Andorra Compacta' (Creeping Cedar) · J. horizontalis 'Bar Harbor' (Bar Harbor Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Blue Chip' (Blue Chip Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Grey Forest' (Creeping Cedar) · J. horizontalis 'Hughes' (Hughes Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Icee Blue' (Creeping Cedar) · J. horizontalis 'Jade River' (Jade River Creeping Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Lime Glow' (Creeping Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Monber' (Icee Blue® Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Mother Lode' (Mother Lode Golden Creeping Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Plumosa' (Andorra Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Plumosa Compacta' (Compact Andorra Creeping Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Prince of Wales' (Creeping Cedar) · J. horizontalis 'Wiltonii' (Blue Rug Juniper) · J. horizontalis 'Wiltoni' (Blue Rug Juniper)
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- A manual of Indian timbers; an account of the growth, distribution, and uses of the trees and shrubs of India and Ceylon with descriptions of their wood-structure, by J. S. Gamble... London: S. Low, Marston & co. ltd., 1902. url p. 584.
- A manual of dangerous insects likely to be introduced in the United States through importations. Ed. by W. Dwight Pierce, entomologist, southern field crop insect investigations. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1918. url p. 252.
- A manual of forestry. LondonBradbury, Agnew1906-25 url p. 417.
- A manual of the Coniferae, containing a general review of the order; a synopsis of the hardy kinds cultivated in Great Britain; their place and use in horticulture, etc., etc. With numerous woodcuts and illustrations. Chelsea, 1881. url , , , .
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- American medical botany, being a collection of the native medicinal plants of the United States, containing their botanical history and chemical analysis, and properties and uses in medicine, diet and the arts, with coloured Boston, Published by Cummings and Hilliard; [Cambridge] University Press, Hilliard and Metcalf, 1817-20 [i.e. 1817-1821]. url p. 605.
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- Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America 1823-1827, together with a particular description of thirty-three species of American oaks and eighteen species of Pinus, with appendices containing a list of the plants introduced by Douglas and an account of h London, W. Wesley & Son, 1914. url , p. 162.
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- Parks: a manual of municipal and county parks compiled as a result of a nation-wide study of municipal and county parks conducted by the Playground and Recreation Association of America, in co-operation with edited by L.H. Weir. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1928. url p. 682, p. 683, p. 686, p. 688, p. 689, p. 690, p. 691, p. 692.
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- The agriculturist's manual: being a familiar description of the agricultural plants cultivated in Europe: including practical observations respecting those suited to the climate of Great Britain and forming a report of Lawson's by Peter Lawson & Son. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh: Thomas Cadell, 141 Strand, London; and W. Curry Jun. & Co., Dublin, 1836. url p. 399.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 07, 2007:
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3497174
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Con-2045
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14706073
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:262215-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 262215-1
- IUCN ID: 217116
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 645860
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