Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Okkernoot, Okkernoteboom, Walnoot, Walnooteboom
Common Names in English:
Carpathian Walnut, Walnut, Common Walnut, English Walnut, European Walnut, Madeira Walnut, Persian Walnut
Common Names in Finnish:
Jalopähkinät, Saksanjalopähkinä, Saksanpähkinä, Saksanpaehkinae
Common Names in French:
Noix Commune, Noix Royale, Noyer Commun, Noyer D´europe, Noyer De France, Noyer Royal
Common Names in German:
Echte Walnuß, Echter Walnußaum, Europäischer Walnußbaum, Gemeine Walnuß, Nußbaum
Common Names in Italian:
Noce Comune, Noceto
Common Names in Japanese:
Kashi Gurumi, Perusha Gurumi
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Slovak:
Common Names in Spanish:
Nogal Común, Nogal Europeo, Nogal Inglés
Common Names in Swedish:
or rarely shrubs
, deciduous, semievergreen, or evergreen
, monoecious or rarely dioecious; bark
tight (or exfoliating) . Branchlets
with solid or chambered
buds subglobose or ovoid
, naked or with scales
. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate (or opposite), odd- or even-pinnate, sometimes trifoliolate
, rarely simple
, peltate scales, often resinous
, particularly conspicuous
abaxially on young leaves and twigs
serrate or rarely entire. Inflorescences pendulous or sometimes erect
or terminal, on reduced shoots
arising on branchlets of previous year (old growth) or on current
yearâ€™s growth (new growth), of several types: androgynous panicle with male, lateral spikes and female, central spike; androgynous panicle with male, mainly lateral spikes and female, central spike male at apex; cluster
of male spikes and solitary female spike; or solitary male and female spikes. Flowers unisexual
, rarely entomophilous. Male flowers subtended by an entire or 3-lobed bract; bracteoles 2 or absent; sepals 0-4, adnate
to receptacle when present; stamens 3-40(-100), inserted
on receptacle; filaments
short to nearly absent, free
, 2-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers with an entire or 3-lobed bracts; bracteoles 2 or 3 (or absent) ; sepals 0-4, adnate to ovary, free at apex; gynoecium of 2 carpels united into an inferior ovary
, 1-loculed, but at base 2-4(-8) -loculed; style 1, short or elongate
, rarely absent; stigmas 2, carinal or commissural
, sometimes 4-lobed, plumose
; ovule 1, orthotropous
. Fruiting spike elongate, and pendulous or short and erect, rarely conelike. Fruit a drupelike nut, 2-4(-8) -chambered at base, with a dehiscent
or indehiscent husk
, or a 2- or 3-winged or disc-winged nutlet
. Seed solitary, without endosperm. Cotyledons 4-lobed, much contorted. Germination hypogeal or epigeal. 2n = (28), 32, (64) .
Nine genera and 60 or more species: mostly in temperate and subtropical regions of the N hemisphere; seven genera (one endemic) and 20 species (seven endemic, one introduced ) in China.
, 3-50 m.
light to dark gray or gray-brown, smooth
or split into ridges
purplish brown, terete
, stout, sparsely to densely covered with glands
and capitate-glandular hairs
, sometimes also with scales
or fasciculate hairs, early in season
hairs; leaf scars
triangular or 3-lobed, large; pith
. Bud scales valvate
, densely hirsute
. Leaves usually odd-, sometimes even-pinnate; petiole
and rachis with indument
as twigs. Leaflets
5-25, sessile or subsessile
, often aromatic
in size or median
leaflets largest, (2.5-) 4.3-15(-17.5) × 0.8-6.5 cm; surfaces usually with nonglandular hairs (simple
and/or fasciculate), glandular
hairs, sessile glands, and/or scales, sometimes glabrous
catkins solitary from 2d-year twigs, sessile; stamens 7-50 per flower, glabrous or pilose
flowers solitary or in terminal
. Fruits nuts enclosed in husks
, not compressed
; husks thick, indehiscent; nuts tan, neither compressed nor angled
, or smooth; shells
thick. Seeds sweet. x
Species 21: North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Eurasia .
Juglans is a very important source of edible nuts, dyes, and wood for cabinet work, furniture, and construction. Juglans regia Linnaeus, the walnut of commerce, is widely cultivated in California; it is easily distinguished from native species by its leaves with 5-11 broad, entire leaflets and nuts with thin rugulose shells, not grooved or ridged. Because of its sensitivity to native pathogens , J. regia is usually grown as stem-grafts on roots of native or hybrid walnuts (see discussion under J. hindsii). Occasional seedlings of J. regia have been reported from the vicinity of cultivated plants , but these seldom, if ever, live to maturity.
The growth form , bark, and fruit are important taxonomically in Juglans, but these usually are not available on herbarium specimens. As with many woody plants , the first one or two leaves of the season (i.e. , the lowermost leaves on the twig ) are sometimes atypical in structure, having broader, blunter leaflets. The fasciculate hairs on the veins normally have more rays than those on the blade . In addition to the types of hairs described below, small multiradiate hairs are found on the immature twigs, petioles, rachises, and midribs . They are usually gone when the leaf is fully expanded, but they may persist for a short time afterwards.
Species Juglans regia
to 25 m
tall. Leaves 25-30 cm; petiole
5-7 cm; petiole and
, without glandular
(3 or) 5-9,
entire on mature
trees, sometimes obscurely serrulate
on young plants
1-2 mm, blade
to long elliptic
, 6-15 × 3-6 cm, abaxially glabrous
for tufts of hairs in vein
axils, without glandular hairs, base
subrounded, apex obtuse
or acute to shortly acuminate; terminal
2.5-6 cm. Male spike 5-10(-15) cm. Stamens 6-30(-40). Fruiting spike
usually with 1-3(-38) nuts. Nuts subglobose, 4-6 cm; husk
thick except in commercial
Apr-May, fr. Oct. 2n = 32.
Commonly cultivated in China from 23-42° N for its edible, oily nuts and hard, fine grained wood . Juglans regia has a very long history of cultivation in China and elsewhere; as a result, there are many cultivars, including five Chinese taxa that L.-A. Dode (Bull . Soc. Dendrol. France 2: 67-98. 1906), recognized on the basis of differences in shell thickness, size, etc.
Habit: Tree • Growth Form: Single Stem • Shape and Orientation: Rounded
Flowers: Bloom Period: Mid Spring • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 40 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: High • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Rapid • Mature Height (feet): 60.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 25 • Size: over 40' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Mountain slopes ; 500-1800(-4000) m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,212 meters (0 to 13,819 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Space over 40' apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 6.0 • Maximum pH: 7.5 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 28 • Maximum Precipitation: 45 • Moisture Use: High
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -8 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 190 • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Juglandanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
J. fallax Dode • J. kamaonia (C. De Candolle) Dode • J. orientis Dode • J. regia var. sinensis C. De Candolle • J. sinensis (C. De Candolle) Dode. • Juglans duclouxiana Dode
Members of the genus Juglans
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 82 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
J. ailanthifolia (Japanese Walnut) · J. ailanthifolia var. cordiformis (Heartnut) · J. ailantifolia (Japanese Walnut) · J. australis (Nogal Criollo) · J. bixbyi (Bixby Walnut) · J. boliviana (Bolivian Walnut) · J. californica (Northern California Black Walnut) · J. californica S.Watson var. californica S.Watson (Southern California Black Walnut) · J. californica var. californica (California Walnut) · J. cinerea (Butternut) · J. cinerea 'Bountiful' (Butternut) · J. cinerea 'Loumis' (Butternut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cw1' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cw3' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Campbell Cww' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Frank' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Imshu' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Locket' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Marvel' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Mitchell Hybrid' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Rhodes' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Simcoe' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Stealth' (Heartnut) · J. cordiformis 'Wright' (Heartnut) · J. hindsii (Northern California Black Walnut) · J. illinoinensis (Pecan) · J. intermedia (Intermediate Walnut) · J. jamaicensis (Walnut) · J. major (Arizona Black Walnut) · J. mandshurica (Manchurian Walnut) · J. microcarpa (Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. microcarpa (Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. stewartii (Stewarts Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa var. stewartii (I.M.Johnst.) W.Manning (Stewart's Little Walnut) · J. microcarpa subsp. major (Little Walnut) · J. neotropica (Andean Walnut) · J. nigra (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Beineke 11' (Black Walnut 'beineke 11') · J. nigra 'Black Gem' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Daniels' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Emma Kay' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Football 2' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Krause' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Kwik Krop' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Laciniata' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Lamb's Curly' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Ridgeway' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Rowher' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Sauber 1' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Schrieber' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Sparrow' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Surprise' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Thomas Black' (Black Walnut) · J. nigra 'Thomas Myers' (Black Walnut) · J. regia (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia var. Carpathian (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Allegheny' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Bedco 1' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Broadview' (Dwarf English Walnut) · J. regia 'Cascade' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Champion' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'China-B' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Coble #2' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Colby' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Greenhaven' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Hansen' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Kaiser' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Ky Giant' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Lake' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Looking Glass' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Mckinster' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Northern Prize' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Perry' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Purpurea' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Reda' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'S-1' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Shiawassee' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Somers' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. regia 'Utah Giant' (Carpathian Walnut) · J. × bixbyi (Bixby Walnut) · J. x intermedia (Intermediate Walnut) · J. 'Royal' (Walnut)
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- , Plants
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2667665
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-503244
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4462689
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:442427-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 20772
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 503244
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 442427-1
- IUCN ID: 217055
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDJUG020A0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: JURE80
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 44796
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- Mean = 212.300 meters (696.522 feet), Standard Deviation = 343.580 based on 6,384 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]