Common Names in English:
, rarely shrubby or treelike, often with bulbs, corms, rhizomes, or tubers. Leaves basal or cauline, often narrow, margin
entire or spiny
. Inflorescence a terminal
spike, umbel, raceme
, panicle, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually subtended by 1 to several spathaceous
involucres. Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, free
to form a short tube
, with or without a corona
. Stamens 6, inserted
at perianth throat or at base
of segments; filaments
sometimes basally connate; anther
, mostly introrse
. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed; ovules few to many per locule; placentation axile
. Style slender; stigma capitate or 3-lobed. Fruit a capsule, usually loculicidal, sometimes dehiscing irregularly, rarely a berry. Seeds with endosperm.
More than 100 genera and 1200 species: tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions worldwide; ten genera and 34 species (14 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
, from brown, tunicate
bulbs often present. Leaves 2(-3), basal, opposite, with sheathing
flat and parallel, or convolute; nonsheathing blade erect to recurving at maturity, grayish green, linear-oblanceolate, glaucous; sheathing blade white, tubular
, membranous, enclosing leaf bases
and scape. Scape erect in flower, prostrate
in fruit, green, solid. Inflorescences pendulous, 1-flowered, spathaceous
, membranous; bracts 2, connate
, split on 1 side. Flowers nodding
, fragrant; perianath 2.5 cm or shorter; tepals 6, distinct
, unequal; outer tepals spreading
, white, narrowly obovate
to almost orbicular
, larger than inner; inner tepals overlapping, appearing tubular, green-spotted at apex only or apex and base, straight to semiorbicular, apex notched
; stamens 6, inserted
at bases of tepals, distinct; anthers
, bases lobed
, apices tapered, dehiscense introrse
, via terminal
slits; ovary inferior, green, 3-locular, globose, septal nectaries present; style, white, unbranched, filiform
; stigma indistinct to minutely capitate; pedicel wiry, short, slender. Fruits capsular
, green, globose, fleshy
, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 18-36, light brown, 3.5 mm, oblong
, elaiosomes fleshy. x
Species 14-17: introduced ; Europe, sw Asia (Asia Minor , Iranian Caucasus, and Caspian Sea regions) ; introduced and naturalized elsewhere.
A number of Galanthus species, especially G. nivalis, are commonly cultivated for their late- winter and early-spring flowers, which emerge through the snow. Species of Galanthus are sometimes confused with Leucojum, snowflakes, a spring-flowering relative. The plants of Leucojum are usually taller, bear 2-3 flowers per stem, and their tepals are all equal.
Flowers: Bloom Period: October, November, December. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: under 6" tall.
Galanthus reginae-olgae is found in a variety of habitats , such as stunted woodland, deciduous woodland, amongst rocks and scrub , near streams on sloping ground , and in river valleys and gorges . It is most abundant at higher altitudes , around 1,000 m. Like other species from southern Europe, most of these habitats provide suitable micro-environments in areas otherwise unsuitable for a predominately woodland plant. This species seems to prefers limestone substrate (Phitos et al. 1995; Davis, 1999). The populations in Sicily are found on rocky outcrops in an oak forest .
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls ) [more info]
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial to Full Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons.
- Amaryllis Family
- Subfamily: Agapanthoideae ()
- Family: Amaryllidaceae () - Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons. - Amaryllis Family
- Order: Liliales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Liliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: T.G.Orphanides Publication
: Atti Congr. Internaz.
Bot. Firenze 1874: 214 (1876) 1876
Galanthus reginae-olgae is closely related to G. nivalis, and for many years was considered to be a subspecies of the latter. Both species have applanate (flat) vernation , narrow linear leaves, and a single green mark at the apex of each inner perianth segment, which is often the same shape . Despite the similarities between these two species there are obvious differences, including flowering time, leaf length (at flowering), and leaf colour. Galanthus reginae-olgae is predominantly autumn- to early winter-flowering, whereas G. nivalis is late winter- to early spring-flowering; these differences persist in cultivation. The leaves of G. reginae-olgae are either absent at the onset of flowering or are only about 2–3 cm long (excluding G. reginae-olgae subsp. vernalis: see below), in contrast to those of G. nivalis which are always several centimetres long at flowering time. The upper leaf surface of G. reginae-olgae has a conspicuous glaucous (greyish to grey) stripe running down the middle of the leaf. There is sometimes a greyish stripe on the leaf of G. nivalis, but it is never as obvious as that of G. reginae-olgae and is often absent. The upper leaf surface of G. reginae-olgae is usually a darker green than G. nivalis, which makes the grey median stripe more pronounced. The under surface of the leaf is usually lighter in colour (whitish grey) than G. nivalis (pale grey). Galanthus reginae-olgae is divided into two subspecies: ssp. reginae-olgae and ssp. vernalis. These two subspecies are separated on flowering time, and leaf length at the onset of flowering (Davis 1999, 2001).
Members of the genus Galanthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 35 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. byzantinus (Snowdrop) · G. corcyrensis (Snowdrop) · G. elewesii (Giant Snowdrop) · G. elwesii (Greater Snowdrop) · G. gracilis (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae 'Lady Beatrix Stanley' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis (Bucaneve) · G. nivalis f. pleniflorus (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis nivalis (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Blewbury Tart' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Flore Pleno' (Double Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Lady Elphinstone' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Pewsey Vale' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Scharlockii Group' (Donkeys Ears Snowdrops) · G. nivalis 'Virescens' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Warei' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'White Dream' (Snowdrop) · G. plicatus (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Bill Clarke' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Colossus' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Sophie North' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Trym' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Wendy's Gold' (Wendy's Gold Pleated Snowdrop) · G. reginae-olgae (Snowdrop) · G. woronowii (Snowdrop) · G. 'Atkinsii' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Augustus' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ketton' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Magnet' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Maidwell L' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ophelia' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Sam Arnott' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Straffan' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Viridapice' (Snowdrop)
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- Checklist of CITES Species CITES, WCMC url p. 289, p. 290, p. 291.
- Checklist of CITES Species: a reference to the appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES url p. 294, p. 303.
- Checklists for the CORINE Biotopes Programme and its application in the PHARE countries of Central and East Europe: including comparisons with relevant conventions and agreements on the conservation of European species and habitats EC url p. 110.
- Preliminary draft list of plant species for inclusion in a 'Responsibility List' of European plants WCMC url p. 33.
- The botanic gardens list of rare and threatened species IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 5.
- Qian Xiao-hu, Chen Sing-chi, Hsu Yin, Hu Zhi-bi, Huang Xiu-lan & Fan Quan-jin. 1985. Amaryllidaceae. In: Pei Chien & Ting Chih-tsun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(1): 1--42.
- Davis, A. P. 1999. The Genus Galanthus. Portland.
- Stern, F. C. 1956. Snowdrops and Snowflakes -- A Study of the Genera Galanthus and Leucojum. London.
- Yeo, P. F. 1975. The hybrid origin of some cultivated snowdrops (Galanthus-Amaryllidaceae). Baileya 19: 157-162.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus reginae-olgae. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 01February2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 04, 2008:
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5769572
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-307605
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:64508-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 984611-1
- IUCN ID: 210325
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 740834
- Zhanhe Ji & Alan W. Meerow "Amaryllidaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 264. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Gerald B. Straley & Frederick H. Utech "Galanthus". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 55, 280, 293. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus reginae-olgae. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]