Common Names in English:
, rarely shrubby or treelike, often with bulbs, corms, rhizomes, or tubers. Leaves basal or cauline, often narrow, margin
entire or spiny
. Inflorescence a terminal
spike, umbel, raceme
, panicle, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually subtended by 1 to several spathaceous
involucres. Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, free
to form a short tube
, with or without a corona
. Stamens 6, inserted
at perianth throat or at base
of segments; filaments
sometimes basally connate; anther
, mostly introrse
. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed; ovules few to many per locule; placentation axile
. Style slender; stigma capitate or 3-lobed. Fruit a capsule, usually loculicidal, sometimes dehiscing irregularly, rarely a berry. Seeds with endosperm.
More than 100 genera and 1200 species: tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions worldwide; ten genera and 34 species (14 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
, from brown, tunicate
bulbs often present. Leaves 2(-3), basal, opposite, with sheathing
flat and parallel, or convolute; nonsheathing blade erect to recurving at maturity, grayish green, linear-oblanceolate, glaucous; sheathing blade white, tubular
, membranous, enclosing leaf bases
and scape. Scape erect in flower, prostrate
in fruit, green, solid. Inflorescences pendulous, 1-flowered, spathaceous
, membranous; bracts 2, connate
, split on 1 side. Flowers nodding
, fragrant; perianath 2.5 cm or shorter; tepals 6, distinct
, unequal; outer tepals spreading
, white, narrowly obovate
to almost orbicular
, larger than inner; inner tepals overlapping, appearing tubular, green-spotted at apex only or apex and base, straight to semiorbicular, apex notched
; stamens 6, inserted
at bases of tepals, distinct; anthers
, bases lobed
, apices tapered, dehiscense introrse
, via terminal
slits; ovary inferior, green, 3-locular, globose, septal nectaries present; style, white, unbranched, filiform
; stigma indistinct to minutely capitate; pedicel wiry, short, slender. Fruits capsular
, green, globose, fleshy
, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 18-36, light brown, 3.5 mm, oblong
, elaiosomes fleshy. x
Species 14-17: introduced ; Europe, sw Asia (Asia Minor , Iranian Caucasus, and Caspian Sea regions) ; introduced and naturalized elsewhere.
A number of Galanthus species, especially G. nivalis, are commonly cultivated for their late- winter and early-spring flowers, which emerge through the snow. Species of Galanthus are sometimes confused with Leucojum, snowflakes, a spring-flowering relative. The plants of Leucojum are usually taller, bear 2-3 flowers per stem, and their tepals are all equal.
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, December. • Flower Color: green, near white, white
Size: under 6" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 594 meters (0 to 1,949 feet).
Occurs in or at the margins
of mixed deciduous forests
silvatica, Quercus sp.
, Tilia argentea
platyphylla, Carpinus betulus, Sorbus tormentalis,
Ulmus sp., etc.
) and coniferous
forest (Juniperus altari,
Abies sp.). Found on calcareous
and acidic soils; often
rich and leafy soils, sometimes sandy, but also occurring on heavier
) soils. Often on sloping ground
, and sometimes near streams
and small rivers
. It occurs from 80 to 1,350 m
, but most frequently
at 1,000 to 1,350 m.
List of Habitats :
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate [more info]
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Amaryllidaceae () - Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons. - Amaryllis Family
- Order: Liliales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Liliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Guss. Publication
: Pl. Rar. 140
Galanthus plicatus is an easily identified snowdrop because the leaves are folded sharply downwards towards the underside of the leaf. When in bud the margins are folded flat against the lower surface of the leaf. There are two subspecies : ssp. plicatus and ssp. byzantinus. The former occurs throughout the natural range of the species, and has a single mark on each inner perianth segment; the latter is confined to the extreme part of northwest Turkey and has two marks on each inner perianth segment. This snowdrop is related to G. nivalis and G. reginae-olgae but is rarely confused with these species and is genetically distinct (Davis 1999, 2001; Lledo et al. 2004; Larsen et al. 2010). .
Members of the genus Galanthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 35 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. byzantinus (Snowdrop) · G. corcyrensis (Snowdrop) · G. elewesii (Giant Snowdrop) · G. elwesii (Greater Snowdrop) · G. gracilis (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae 'Lady Beatrix Stanley' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis (Bucaneve) · G. nivalis f. pleniflorus (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis nivalis (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Blewbury Tart' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Flore Pleno' (Double Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Lady Elphinstone' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Pewsey Vale' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Scharlockii Group' (Donkeys Ears Snowdrops) · G. nivalis 'Virescens' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Warei' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'White Dream' (Snowdrop) · G. plicatus (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Bill Clarke' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Colossus' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Sophie North' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Trym' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Wendy's Gold' (Wendy's Gold Pleated Snowdrop) · G. reginae-olgae (Snowdrop) · G. woronowii (Snowdrop) · G. 'Atkinsii' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Augustus' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ketton' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Magnet' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Maidwell L' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ophelia' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Sam Arnott' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Straffan' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Viridapice' (Snowdrop)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 617.
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 126.
- A first report on the relations between climates and crops. By Cleveland Abbe. Washington [D.C.]: Govt. Print. Off., 1905. url p. 194.
- A manual of scientific terms, pronouncing, etymological, and explanatory, chiefly comprising terms in botany, natural history, anatomy, medicine, and veterinary science, with an appendix of specific names. Designed for the use of by Rev. James Stormonth Edinburgh, Maclachlan and Stewart, 1885 url p. 172.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 907.
- Alpine flowers for English gardens / by W. Robinson. London: Murray, 1879. url p. 408, p. 423, p. 425, p. 430, p. 431.
- An environmental profile of the Black Sea Coast WCMC url p. 23.
- Beautiful gardens: how to make and maintain them / by Walter P. Wright. -- London; Cassell and company, 1909. url p. 80.
- Book of garden plans, Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & company, 1916. url .
- Bulb propagation and trade study WWF url p. 81.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1923 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 41.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 235.
- Checklist of CITES Species CITES, WCMC url p. 289, p. 290.
- Checklist of CITES Species: a reference to the appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES url p. 294, p. 303.
- Cryptogamic plants of the USSR. (Flora sporovykh rastenii SSSR) Translated from Russian. Jerusalem[Published for the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 19 - url p. 449.
- Curtis's botanical magazine. 47 1820 London; New York [etc.]: Academic Press [etc.] url , , p. 113, p. 169, p. 46, p. 57, p. 86.
- Edwards, S. T. The Botanical register: consisting of coloured figures of. .. 7 1821 London: Printed for James Ridgway, 1815-1828. url , , , , , , .
- English botany, or, Coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: R. Hardwicke, 1863-1886. url p. 167.
- English botany, or, coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: G. Bell, 1873. url p. 167.
- English cyclopaedia, a new dictionary of universal knowledge, conducted by Charles Knight. London, Bradbury, 1854-61. url .
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url p. 364, p. 372.
- Floral illustrations of the seasons, consisting of the most beautiful, hardy and rare herbaceous plants cultivated in the flower garden, from drawings, by Mrs. Edward Roscoe. Engraved by R. Havell. 1851 London, Robert Havell, 1831 [i.e. 1829] url explanation of plate 55.
- Flower gardening, New York, bMcBride, Nast & company, 1913. url .
- Flower gardening, by H. S. Adams. New York, McBride, Nast & Company, 1913. url p. 137, p. 210.
- Flowers for the parlor and garden / Cambridge, Mass.: Hurd and Houghton; 1876. url p. 194.
- Flowers for the parlor and garden. Boston, J.E. Tilton & company, 1868. url p. 194.
- Flowers of the field. London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge[186-?] url p. 603.
- Flowers of the field. Rev. throughout and edited by Clarence Elliott. With an appendix including the Pipe-wort tribe (Eriocauleae) the Sedge tribe (Cyperaceae) and the Grass tribe (Gramineae) LondonG. Routledge[n.d.] url p. 280.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 104, p. 116, p. 137, p. 144, p. 173, p. 184.
- Garden flowers: how to cultivate them. A treatise on the culture of hardy ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, herbaceous and bedding plants. By Edward Sprague Rand, jr. Boston: J. E. Tilton and Company, 1866. url p. 172, p. 172.
- Garden flowers; how to cultivate them. A treatise on the culture of hardy ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, herbaceous and bedding plants. By Edward Sprague Rand, jr.... New York, Hurd and Houghton, 1876. url p. 172.
- Gardeners' chronicle of America. New York: Chronicle Press, 1905-1950. url p. 463.
- Gardening for beginners; a handbook to the garden, by E.T. Cook. [London]"Country Life" [etc., 1914] url .
- Gardening. Chicago, the Gardening Co., 1892-1925. url p. 180.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 493.
- Hardy flowers. Descriptions of upwards of thirteen hundred of the most ornamental species, with directions for their arrangement, culture, etc.. .. By W. Robinson. London, Macmillan, 1878. url p. 129, p. 130.
- Hardy perennials and old-fashioned garden flowers. Describing the most desirable plants for borders, rockcries, and shrubberies, and including both foliage and flowering plants. By John Wood. London, L.U. Gill, 1884. url p. 311.
- Henderson's Handbook of plants and general horticulture / By Peter Henderson. New York, P. Henderson & Co., 1910. url p. 416.
- Horticulture. Boston, Mass.: Horticulture Pub. Co., c1904- url p. 778.
- Irish gardening. Dublin: Pub. Office, 1906-1922 url p. 18.
- Lindley, J. Paxton's flower garden /by Professor Lindley and Sir Joseph Paxton. 1 1853 London: Bradbury and Evans, -1853. url p. 192.
- List of rare, threatened and endemic plants in Europe (1982 edition) Council of Europe url p. 260, p. 313, p. 68.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , p. 130, p. 89, p. 99.
- Loddiges, C. L. The botanical cabinet: consisting of coloured delineations of plants, from all countries, with a short account of each, directions for management, &c, &c /by Conrad Loddiges & Sons; the plates by George Cooke... 19 1832 London: John & Arthur Arch. .., 1817-1833. url .
- My garden, its plan and culture together with a general description of its geology, botany, and natural history, London, Bell and Daldy, 1872. url .
- Nature. London, Macmillan. url p. 249.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 9 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 387, p. 403, p. 41, p. 440.
- Papers and proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania, The Society. url p. 90.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 471.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 307.
- The Book of gardening; a handbook of horticulture. London, C. Scribner's Sons, 1900. url .
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 478.
- The Farmer's magazine. [London: Rogerson and Tuxford, 1834-1881. url p. 370.
- The Floral world and garden guide. London, Groombridge and Sons, 1858-1880. url p. 123, p. 193.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 1021.
- The Garden flowers of the year. LondonReligious Tract Society[1847?] url p. 9.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , p. 1, p. 10, p. 10, p. 109, p. 112, p. 113, p. 116, p. 116, p. 124, p. 125, p. 127, p. 128, p. 132, p. 136, p. 137, p. 137, p. 142, p. 143, p. 143, p. 145, p. 154, p. 161, p. 162, p. 164, p. 166, p. 167, p. 171, p. 173, p. 174, p. 178, p. 181, p. 194, p. 194, p. 195, p. 203, p. 208, p. 208, p. 21, p. 210, p. 221, p. 222, p. 223, p. 233, p. 234, p. 250, p. 253, p. 256, p. 257, p. 260, p. 27, p. 272, p. 272, p. 274, p. 274, p. 277, p. 279, p. 310, p. 311, p. 313, p. 322, p. 324, p. 347, p. 362, p. 373, p. 378, p. 391, p. 394, p. 460, p. 468, p. 506, p. 506, p. 540, p. 567, p. 576, p. 584, p. 67, p. 89, p. 94, p. 95.
- The Gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orome, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url p. 408.
- The Gardener. Edinburgh;W. Blackwood and sons, 1867-1882. url p. 256.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. 1847 London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 118, p. 119, p. 135, p. 176, p. 247, p. 247, p. 318, p. 326, p. 340, p. 361, p. 367, p. 368, p. 420, p. 427, p. 79, p. 975, p. iv.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , , p. 105, p. 116, p. 118, p. 121, p. 123, p. 126, p. 129, p. 130, p. 144, p. 145, p. 146, p. 147, p. 157, p. 157, p. 160, p. 182, p. 213, p. 226, p. 231, p. 236, p. 237, p. 246, p. 247, p. 25, p. 268, p. 268, p. 271, p. 276, p. 308, p. 308, p. 308, p. 310, p. 311, p. 324, p. 334, p. 336, p. 337, p. 34, p. 340, p. 340, p. 342, p. 343, p. 367, p. 371, p. 371, p. 374, p. 378, p. 410, p. 438, p. 478, p. 541, p. 547, p. 554, p. 576, p. 628, p. 693, p. 71, p. 728, p. 73.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 368, p. 372, p. 387, p. 403, p. 440.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url p. 156, p. 185, p. 187, p. 269, p. 269, p. 436, p. 499, p. 499.
- The Magazine of horticulture, botany, and all useful discoveries and improvements in rural affairs. Boston: Hovey and Co., 1837- url p. 183, p. 335.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 499.
- The book of garden management: Comprising information on laying out and planting gardens... London: S.O. Beeton, [1862?] url p. 305.
- The bulb book; or, Bulbous and tuberous plants for the open air, stove, and greenhouse, containing particulars as to descriptions, culture, propagation, etc.. .. by John Weathers. London, J. Murray, 1911. url p. 237.
- The differentiation and specificity of starches in relation to genera, species, etc.; stereochemistry applied to protoplasmic processes and products, and as a strictly scientific basis for the classification of plants and animals Washington, D.C.Carnegie institution of Washington1913 url p. 235.
- The florist and garden miscellany. London: Chapman and Hall, 1850-1851. url p. 103, p. 326.
- The florist, fruitist, and garden miscellany. London: Chapman and Hall, 1852- url p. 150, p. 275.
- The fruit, flower, and kitchen garden. By Patrick Neill. Adapted to the United States. Philadelphia, H. C. Baird, 1851. url p. 264.
- The garden month by month; describing the appearance, color, dates of bloom, height and cultivation of all desirable hardy herbaceous perennials for the formal or wild garden, with additional lists of aquatics, vi Garden City, N.Y., Garden City publishing company, inc.[c1907]. url .
- The garden... London, 1872- url p. 145, p. 171, p. 174, p. 175.
- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url , p. 103, p. 113, p. 174, p. 252, p. 252, p. 297, p. 338.
- The journal of the Horticultural Society of London. London, [England]: Published for the Society, by Longman and Co., 1846-1855. url , , p. 306.
- The practical fruit, flower and vegetable gardener's companion with calendar. By Patrick Neill. .. Adapted to the United States New York, C.M. Saxton and Co.[c1855] url p. 254, p. 254.
- The scented garden / by Eleanour Sinclair Rohde. London: Medici Society, [19--] url p. 11.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 1309.
- The villa gardener; comprising the choice of a suburban villa residence; the laying out, planting, and culture of the garden and grounds; and the management of the villa farm, including the dairy and poultry-yard. .. By J. C. Loudon. London, W. S. Orr & co., 1850. url p. 253.
- The wild garden, or the naturalization and natural grouping of hardy exotic plants with a chapter on the garden of British wild flowers. London, J. Murray, 1894. url .
- The wild garden; or, Our groves & shrubberies made beautiful. .. London, J. Murray, 1870. url , , , , .
- Transactions and journal of proceedings / Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History & Antiquarian Society. Dumfries: Council of the Society, url p. 102, p. 54.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh]: The Society, 1891-1970. url p. 104, p. 68.
- Transactions of the Botanical Society. Edinburgh: Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 1841-1891. url p. 315, p. 337, p. 372, p. 473, p. 503.
- Transactions of the Edinburgh Naturalists' Field Club. Edinburgh: The Club, 1886. url p. 115, p. 115.
- Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [S.l.: s.n.], 1843-1920. url p. 82.
- Travels in the central Caucasus and Bashan; including visits to Ararat and Tabreez and ascents of Kazbek and Elbruz. By Douglas W. Freshfield. London: Longmans, Green, & co., 1869. url p. 509.
- Qian Xiao-hu, Chen Sing-chi, Hsu Yin, Hu Zhi-bi, Huang Xiu-lan & Fan Quan-jin. 1985. Amaryllidaceae. In: Pei Chien & Ting Chih-tsun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(1): 1--42.
- Davis, A. P. 1999. The Genus Galanthus. Portland.
- Stern, F. C. 1956. Snowdrops and Snowflakes -- A Study of the Genera Galanthus and Leucojum. London.
- Yeo, P. F. 1975. The hybrid origin of some cultivated snowdrops (Galanthus-Amaryllidaceae). Baileya 19: 157-162.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus plicatus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 01February2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 04, 2008:
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1672378
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-307594
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:64505-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 64505-1
- IUCN ID: 210324
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 740832
- Zhanhe Ji & Alan W. Meerow "Amaryllidaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 264. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Gerald B. Straley & Frederick H. Utech "Galanthus". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 55, 280, 293. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 92.900 meters (304.790 feet), Standard Deviation = 88.600 based on 200 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus plicatus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]