Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Bucaneve, Common Snowdrop, Flower of Hope, Snowdrop
Common Names in French:
Galantine d'Hiver, Niveole, Perceneige
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Flor de Nieve
, rarely shrubby or treelike, often with bulbs, corms, rhizomes, or tubers. Leaves basal or cauline, often narrow, margin
entire or spiny
. Inflorescence a terminal
spike, umbel, raceme
, panicle, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually subtended by 1 to several spathaceous
involucres. Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, free
to form a short tube
, with or without a corona
. Stamens 6, inserted
at perianth throat or at base
of segments; filaments
sometimes basally connate; anther
, mostly introrse
. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed; ovules few to many per locule; placentation axile
. Style slender; stigma capitate or 3-lobed. Fruit a capsule, usually loculicidal, sometimes dehiscing irregularly, rarely a berry. Seeds with endosperm.
More than 100 genera and 1200 species: tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions worldwide; ten genera and 34 species (14 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
, from brown, tunicate
bulbs often present. Leaves 2(-3), basal, opposite, with sheathing
flat and parallel, or convolute; nonsheathing blade erect to recurving at maturity, grayish green, linear-oblanceolate, glaucous; sheathing blade white, tubular
, membranous, enclosing leaf bases
and scape. Scape erect in flower, prostrate
in fruit, green, solid. Inflorescences pendulous, 1-flowered, spathaceous
, membranous; bracts 2, connate
, split on 1 side. Flowers nodding
, fragrant; perianath 2.5 cm or shorter; tepals 6, distinct
, unequal; outer tepals spreading
, white, narrowly obovate
to almost orbicular
, larger than inner; inner tepals overlapping, appearing tubular, green-spotted at apex only or apex and base, straight to semiorbicular, apex notched
; stamens 6, inserted
at bases of tepals, distinct; anthers
, bases lobed
, apices tapered, dehiscense introrse
, via terminal
slits; ovary inferior, green, 3-locular, globose, septal nectaries present; style, white, unbranched, filiform
; stigma indistinct to minutely capitate; pedicel wiry, short, slender. Fruits capsular
, green, globose, fleshy
, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 18-36, light brown, 3.5 mm, oblong
, elaiosomes fleshy. x
Species 14-17: introduced ; Europe, sw Asia (Asia Minor , Iranian Caucasus, and Caspian Sea regions) ; introduced and naturalized elsewhere.
A number of Galanthus species, especially G. nivalis, are commonly cultivated for their late- winter and early-spring flowers, which emerge through the snow. Species of Galanthus are sometimes confused with Leucojum, snowflakes, a spring-flowering relative. The plants of Leucojum are usually taller, bear 2-3 flowers per stem, and their tepals are all equal.
Species Galanthus nivalis
Plants to 7-20(-40) cm; bulbs 1.5-2.5 × 1-1.5(-2) cm. Leaves: vernation flat and parallel, remaining so within basal sheath ; blade linear to ligulate , 5-15 × 0.3-0.7 cm. Spathe 2-3.5 cm. Flowers: outer tepals white, oblong to broadly obovate , 1.5-2(-2.5) × 0.6-1.1 cm; inner tepals white with green blotch at apex only, narrowly obovate or oblong, 7-12 × 4-6 mm; anthers 3-5 mm; ovary 5-6 × 3-4 mm; style 6-8 mm; pedicel 1.2-3(-4) cm
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 6-12" tall.
Roadsides, open forests , abandoned gardens; 0--500 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,632 meters (0 to 8,635 feet).
Most frequently occurring in moist conditions in deciduous woodland
(Fagus silvatica, Quercus spp.
, Carpinus spp. etc.
), and occasionally
woodland (Abies spp.). Also occurring in meadows, pasture,
, near rivers
and on stony slopes
, particularly on calcareous
soils. Galanthus nivalis is a cross
pollinating plant, but sometimes
takes place. It is pollinated by bees. Seeds have
elaiosomes which are eaten by ants
and they carry seeds through underground
tunnels, helping to distribute them..
List of Habitats :
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.4 Shrubland - Temperate
- 4 Grassland
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.2 Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons.
- Amaryllis Family
- Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 288. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 140. 1754.
- Snowdrop [Greek gala, milk, and anthos, flower, alluding to the color of the flowers]
- Specific epithet:
, by Mrs. Francis King. Boston,
- Botanical name: - Galanthus nivalis L.
- Variety: , by Mrs. Francis King. Boston, Atlantic
- Specific epithet: nivalis - L.
- Subgenus: nom ()
- Genus: Galanthus () - Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 288. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 140. 1754. - Snowdrop [Greek gala, milk, and anthos, flower, alluding to the color of the flowers]
- Tribe: Malveae ()
- Subfamily: Malvoideae ()
- Family: Amaryllidaceae () - Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons. - Amaryllis Family
- Order: Liliales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Liliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Chianthemum nivale • Galanthus alexandri • Galanthus imperati • Galanthus melvillei • Galanthus montanus • Galanthus nivalis • Galanthus Nivalis Sens • Galanthus scharlokii • Galanthus umbricus
Publishing author : Falk Publication : Beitr. ii. 156 There are over 50 synonyms for Galanthus nivalis and this is due to several reasons: it is a variable species and throughout its distribution a number of taxa have been named in an attempt to record this variation ; because of its long history in cultivation, a large number of taxa and cultivars have been recognised, leading to an even greater proliferation of names ; and before many other species had been described, most Galanthus were referred to or associated with G. nivalis, probably because it was the best known and most ubiquitous species (Davis 1999). (Ref. 273695).
Members of the genus Galanthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 35 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. byzantinus (Snowdrop) · G. corcyrensis (Snowdrop) · G. elewesii (Giant Snowdrop) · G. elwesii (Greater Snowdrop) · G. gracilis (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae 'Lady Beatrix Stanley' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis (Bucaneve) · G. nivalis f. pleniflorus (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis nivalis (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Blewbury Tart' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Flore Pleno' (Double Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Lady Elphinstone' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Pewsey Vale' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Scharlockii Group' (Donkeys Ears Snowdrops) · G. nivalis 'Virescens' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Warei' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'White Dream' (Snowdrop) · G. plicatus (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Bill Clarke' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Colossus' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Sophie North' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Trym' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Wendy's Gold' (Wendy's Gold Pleated Snowdrop) · G. reginae-olgae (Snowdrop) · G. woronowii (Snowdrop) · G. 'Atkinsii' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Augustus' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ketton' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Magnet' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Maidwell L' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ophelia' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Sam Arnott' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Straffan' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Viridapice' (Snowdrop)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 17, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Herbarium Willing
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum - Herbarium GJO, Herbarium GJO
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2667195
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-307568
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481042
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:64497-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 70959
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 502704
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 64496-1
- IUCN ID: 210322
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMLIL0W010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GANI
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 40059
- Zhanhe Ji & Alan W. Meerow "Amaryllidaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 264. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Gerald B. Straley & Frederick H. Utech "Galanthus". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 55, 280, 293. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Galanthus nivalis". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 277, 280. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 112.760 meters (369.948 feet), Standard Deviation = 169.450 based on 7,150 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Crook, V. & Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus nivalis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]