Common Names in English:
, rarely shrubby or treelike, often with bulbs, corms, rhizomes, or tubers. Leaves basal or cauline, often narrow, margin
entire or spiny
. Inflorescence a terminal
spike, umbel, raceme
, panicle, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually subtended by 1 to several spathaceous
involucres. Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, free
to form a short tube
, with or without a corona
. Stamens 6, inserted
at perianth throat or at base
of segments; filaments
sometimes basally connate; anther
, mostly introrse
. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed; ovules few to many per locule; placentation axile
. Style slender; stigma capitate or 3-lobed. Fruit a capsule, usually loculicidal, sometimes dehiscing irregularly, rarely a berry. Seeds with endosperm.
More than 100 genera and 1200 species: tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions worldwide; ten genera and 34 species (14 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
, from brown, tunicate
bulbs often present. Leaves 2(-3), basal, opposite, with sheathing
flat and parallel, or convolute; nonsheathing blade erect to recurving at maturity, grayish green, linear-oblanceolate, glaucous; sheathing blade white, tubular
, membranous, enclosing leaf bases
and scape. Scape erect in flower, prostrate
in fruit, green, solid. Inflorescences pendulous, 1-flowered, spathaceous
, membranous; bracts 2, connate
, split on 1 side. Flowers nodding
, fragrant; perianath 2.5 cm or shorter; tepals 6, distinct
, unequal; outer tepals spreading
, white, narrowly obovate
to almost orbicular
, larger than inner; inner tepals overlapping, appearing tubular, green-spotted at apex only or apex and base, straight to semiorbicular, apex notched
; stamens 6, inserted
at bases of tepals, distinct; anthers
, bases lobed
, apices tapered, dehiscense introrse
, via terminal
slits; ovary inferior, green, 3-locular, globose, septal nectaries present; style, white, unbranched, filiform
; stigma indistinct to minutely capitate; pedicel wiry, short, slender. Fruits capsular
, green, globose, fleshy
, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 18-36, light brown, 3.5 mm, oblong
, elaiosomes fleshy. x
Species 14-17: introduced ; Europe, sw Asia (Asia Minor , Iranian Caucasus, and Caspian Sea regions) ; introduced and naturalized elsewhere.
A number of Galanthus species, especially G. nivalis, are commonly cultivated for their late- winter and early-spring flowers, which emerge through the snow. Species of Galanthus are sometimes confused with Leucojum, snowflakes, a spring-flowering relative. The plants of Leucojum are usually taller, bear 2-3 flowers per stem, and their tepals are all equal.
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, December. • Flower Color: green, near white, white
Size: under 6" tall.
In the wild, G. ikariae is mainly confined to wet, shady
places at altitudes
above 600 m
, where it escapes
the severity of
the hot, dry Aegean summer. Populations of G. ikariae are
commonly found in close proximity to a water-source, usually in deep
shade on sloping ground
. Small river
with rather luxuriant
vegetation, including deciduous trees
, are a frequent habitat
these locations Galanthus ikariae is often found growing
through Ivy (Hedera sp.
) or with Cyclamen hederifolium.
Sometimes G. ikariae is found on flat, wet areas in deep
soil at the bottom
of gorges, where it attains a much larger size.
growing in such situations in Andros, have leaves of up to
3 cm wide and 50 cm long. Galanthus ikariae is not totally
confined to river gorges and it also grows at the edge
woodland. On Skyros, for example, G.
ikariae can be found in the shade of macchie, with the Cretan
maple (Acer sempervirens).
It is also found in the shade of large boulders
, between rocks, and
at the base
of rocky outcrops. In all habitats, G.
ikariae is most frequently recorded on soils overlying either
limestone or metamorphic rocks, such as schist..
List of Habitats:
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.8 Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 6 Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs , mountain peaks) [more info]
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Amaryllidaceae () - Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons. - Amaryllis Family
- Order: Liliales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Liliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Baker Publication
: Gard. Chron. (1893) i. 506.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 06-Jan-2005
Galanthus ikariae is frequently confused with other green-leafed snowdrops, and particularly G. woronowii, which are often considered as constituting one species. While it is true that these species can often appear to be very alike, there should be no real reason for confusion. The inner perianth mark of G. ikariae is very large and bold, as stated above, and even when the mark is a similar shape to that of G. woronowii (see below) it still usually covers a larger area of the segment. Galanthus ikariae also has leaves that are dark matt-green, and not bright green like those of G. woronowii. A further means of telling these species apart is by looking at transverse sections of the leaves, as the leaf anatomy of each species is quite different. When a leaf of G. ikariae is sectioned and examined under a microscope, large air-spaces are evident and the mesophyll cells (the cells making up the bulk of the leaf tissue) are loosely arranged with large spaces between them. The air-spaces can be clearly seen with either the naked eye or a x10 hand lens , when the leaf is cut in half with a knife or pair of scissors. The leaves of G. woronowii, and all other broad-, green-leafed snowdrops, do not display this feature, but instead the leaf-blade has very small air-spaces which are either invisible or barely discernible to the naked eye. As a rule-of-thumb test, it is possible to fit a dress-maker’s pin into the air-spaces of G. ikariae, with little or no difficulty. Molecular studies (Lledo et al. 2004) demonstrate that G. ikariae and G. woronowii are separate species.
Since its discovery on the island of Ikaria, G. ikariae has been collected from at least three other Aegean islands, including Andros, Naxos, and Skyros; further collections have also been made on Ikaria.
(Davis 1999, 2001; Lledo et al. 2004).
Members of the genus Galanthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 35 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. byzantinus (Snowdrop) · G. corcyrensis (Snowdrop) · G. elewesii (Giant Snowdrop) · G. elwesii (Greater Snowdrop) · G. gracilis (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae 'Lady Beatrix Stanley' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis (Bucaneve) · G. nivalis f. pleniflorus (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis nivalis (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Blewbury Tart' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Flore Pleno' (Double Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Lady Elphinstone' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Pewsey Vale' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Scharlockii Group' (Donkeys Ears Snowdrops) · G. nivalis 'Virescens' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Warei' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'White Dream' (Snowdrop) · G. plicatus (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Bill Clarke' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Colossus' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Sophie North' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Trym' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Wendy's Gold' (Wendy's Gold Pleated Snowdrop) · G. reginae-olgae (Snowdrop) · G. woronowii (Snowdrop) · G. 'Atkinsii' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Augustus' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ketton' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Magnet' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Maidwell L' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ophelia' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Sam Arnott' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Straffan' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Viridapice' (Snowdrop)
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- Bulb propagation and trade study WWF url p. 23, p. 43, p. 53, p. 81.
- Checklist of CITES Species CITES, WCMC url p. 289.
- Checklist of CITES Species: a reference to the appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES url p. 293.
- List of rare, threatened and endemic plants in Europe (1982 edition) Council of Europe url p. 202, p. 68.
- Preliminary draft list of plant species for inclusion in a 'Responsibility List' of European plants WCMC url p. 33.
- The botanic gardens list of rare and threatened species IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 5.
- Trade in bulbs. Phase 1: report IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 39, p. 41.
- Qian Xiao-hu, Chen Sing-chi, Hsu Yin, Hu Zhi-bi, Huang Xiu-lan & Fan Quan-jin. 1985. Amaryllidaceae. In: Pei Chien & Ting Chih-tsun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(1): 1--42.
- Davis, A. P. 1999. The Genus Galanthus. Portland.
- Stern, F. C. 1956. Snowdrops and Snowflakes -- A Study of the Genera Galanthus and Leucojum. London.
- Yeo, P. F. 1975. The hybrid origin of some cultivated snowdrops (Galanthus-Amaryllidaceae). Baileya 19: 157-162.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus ikariae. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 01February2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 03, 2007:
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1672377
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-307551
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:64485-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 64485-1
- IUCN ID: 210321
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 644368
- Zhanhe Ji & Alan W. Meerow "Amaryllidaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 264. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Gerald B. Straley & Frederick H. Utech "Galanthus". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 55, 280, 293. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus ikariae. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]