Common Names in English:
, rarely shrubby or treelike, often with bulbs, corms, rhizomes, or tubers. Leaves basal or cauline, often narrow, margin
entire or spiny
. Inflorescence a terminal
spike, umbel, raceme
, panicle, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually subtended by 1 to several spathaceous
involucres. Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, free
to form a short tube
, with or without a corona
. Stamens 6, inserted
at perianth throat or at base
of segments; filaments
sometimes basally connate; anther
, mostly introrse
. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed; ovules few to many per locule; placentation axile
. Style slender; stigma capitate or 3-lobed. Fruit a capsule, usually loculicidal, sometimes dehiscing irregularly, rarely a berry. Seeds with endosperm.
More than 100 genera and 1200 species: tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions worldwide; ten genera and 34 species (14 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
, from brown, tunicate
bulbs often present. Leaves 2(-3), basal, opposite, with sheathing
flat and parallel, or convolute; nonsheathing blade erect to recurving at maturity, grayish green, linear-oblanceolate, glaucous; sheathing blade white, tubular
, membranous, enclosing leaf bases
and scape. Scape erect in flower, prostrate
in fruit, green, solid. Inflorescences pendulous, 1-flowered, spathaceous
, membranous; bracts 2, connate
, split on 1 side. Flowers nodding
, fragrant; perianath 2.5 cm or shorter; tepals 6, distinct
, unequal; outer tepals spreading
, white, narrowly obovate
to almost orbicular
, larger than inner; inner tepals overlapping, appearing tubular, green-spotted at apex only or apex and base, straight to semiorbicular, apex notched
; stamens 6, inserted
at bases of tepals, distinct; anthers
, bases lobed
, apices tapered, dehiscense introrse
, via terminal
slits; ovary inferior, green, 3-locular, globose, septal nectaries present; style, white, unbranched, filiform
; stigma indistinct to minutely capitate; pedicel wiry, short, slender. Fruits capsular
, green, globose, fleshy
, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 18-36, light brown, 3.5 mm, oblong
, elaiosomes fleshy. x
Species 14-17: introduced ; Europe, sw Asia (Asia Minor , Iranian Caucasus, and Caspian Sea regions) ; introduced and naturalized elsewhere.
A number of Galanthus species, especially G. nivalis, are commonly cultivated for their late- winter and early-spring flowers, which emerge through the snow. Species of Galanthus are sometimes confused with Leucojum, snowflakes, a spring-flowering relative. The plants of Leucojum are usually taller, bear 2-3 flowers per stem, and their tepals are all equal.
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 907 meters (0 to 2,976 feet).
Galanthus elwesii is a late
winter- to spring-flowering snowdrop of woods
and rocky meadows
(Morgan and Leon 1992). It occurs in a variety of habitats
, Fagus sp., Pinus sp., etc.
scrub (Quercus coccifera, Pteridium aquilinum),
and in forest clearings, subalpine
pastures, and amongst rocks, at
from 100 to 1,300 m
but most commonly at 800 to 1,000 m.
In the Ukraine, it grows in deciduous forests in the steppe zone: in oak forests (Quercus robur) in river valleys, in bairak forests of Alno-Ulmion alliance , in shrub communities of the Prunion stepposae and the Festuco-Brometaeae class . In Moldova, it grows in oak (Quercus robur and Quercus pubescens) and hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), and in shrubland..
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.4 Shrubland - Temperate
- 4 Grassland
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate [more info]
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons.
- Amaryllis Family
- Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 288. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 140. 1754.
- Snowdrop [Greek gala, milk, and anthos, flower, alluding to the color of the flowers]
- Specific epithet:
, by Mrs. Francis King. Boston,
- Botanical name: - Galanthus elwesii Hook.f.
- Variety: , by Mrs. Francis King. Boston, Atlantic
- Specific epithet: elwesii - Hook.f.
- Subgenus: nom ()
- Genus: Galanthus () - Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 288. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 140. 1754. - Snowdrop [Greek gala, milk, and anthos, flower, alluding to the color of the flowers]
- Tribe: Hylocereeae ()
- Subfamily: Cactoideae ()
- Family: Amaryllidaceae () - Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons. - Amaryllis Family
- Order: Liliales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Liliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Chianthemum elwesii • Galanthus elewesii Hook. F. • Galanthus nivalis
: Hook.f. Publication
: Bot. Mag. 101: t. 6166 1875
Galanthus elwesii is often confused with G. gracilis, as both of these species have glaucous leaves and two green marks (or one very large green mark) on each inner perianth segment, and they can occur in similar localities and populations. Galanthus gracilis and G. elwesii are closely related, but they can be easily distinguished from one another by the type of vernation (the position of the leaves when they are in bud), which is applanate (leaves flat against each other) and supervolute (one leaf encircling the other), respectively. Other distinguishing characteristics, which are reliable but not totally discrete for each species, are the width of the leaves and the general dimensions of the plant: G. gracilis usually has narrow leaves and is generally of smaller dimensions than G. elwesii. The leaves of G. gracilis are frequently twisted but they can also be straight. Molecular data (Lledo et al. 2004, Larsen et al. 2010) infers that these two species are distinct .
The confusion between G. elwesii and G. gracilis is especially critical in their European ranges , and at the present time their exact distributions are poorly understood. Molecular studies are currently being undertaken with the aim of addressing these problems and questions concerning species delimitation..
Members of the genus Galanthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 35 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. byzantinus (Snowdrop) · G. corcyrensis (Snowdrop) · G. elewesii (Giant Snowdrop) · G. elwesii (Greater Snowdrop) · G. gracilis (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae (Snowdrop) · G. ikariae 'Lady Beatrix Stanley' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis (Bucaneve) · G. nivalis f. pleniflorus (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis nivalis (Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Blewbury Tart' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Flore Pleno' (Double Common Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Lady Elphinstone' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Pewsey Vale' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Scharlockii Group' (Donkeys Ears Snowdrops) · G. nivalis 'Virescens' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'Warei' (Snowdrop) · G. nivalis 'White Dream' (Snowdrop) · G. plicatus (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Bill Clarke' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Colossus' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Sophie North' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Trym' (Pleated Snowdrop) · G. plicatus 'Wendy's Gold' (Wendy's Gold Pleated Snowdrop) · G. reginae-olgae (Snowdrop) · G. woronowii (Snowdrop) · G. 'Atkinsii' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Augustus' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ketton' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Magnet' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Maidwell L' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Ophelia' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Sam Arnott' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Straffan' (Snowdrop) · G. 'Viridapice' (Snowdrop)
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 617.
- Alpine plants / by A.J. Macself; illustrated with colour photographs by R.A. Malby, water colour drawings by Winifred Walker, line drawings by G.E. Lee. New York: Scribner, 1923. url p. 194.
- An environmental profile of the Black Sea Coast WCMC url p. 23.
- Bulb propagation and trade study WWF url p. 22, p. 23, p. 5, p. 50, p. 53, p. 67, p. 79, p. 81, p. 9, p. 92.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url , , p. 335, p. 6, p. 655, p. 656, p. 657, p. 658.
- Checklist of CITES Species CITES, WCMC url p. 289, p. 290, p. 291.
- Checklist of CITES Species and Annotated CITES Appendices and Reservations CITES Secretariat, UNEP-WCMC url p. 22, p. 38, p. 6.
- Checklist of CITES Species: a reference to the appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES url p. 260, p. 293, p. 303.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 3 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 40.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 1014.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 143, p. 399, p. 77.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 159, p. 223, p. 547, p. 710.
- The differentiation and specificity of starches in relation to genera, species, etc.; stereochemistry applied to protoplasmic processes and products, and as a strictly scientific basis for the classification of plants and animals Washington, D.C.Carnegie institution of Washington1913 url , p. 335, p. 6, p. 6, p. 655, p. 656, p. 657, p. 658, p. xiii.
- The garden month by month; describing the appearance, color, dates of bloom, height and cultivation of all desirable hardy herbaceous perennials for the formal or wild garden, with additional lists of aquatics, vi Garden City, N.Y., Garden City publishing company, inc.[c1907]. url , .
- Trade in bulbs. Phase 1: report IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 39, p. 41, p. 65.
- Variety in the little garden, by Mrs. Francis King. Boston, Atlantic Monthly Press[c1923] url p. 4.
- Wild Plants in Trade TRAFFIC url , p. 18.
- Qian Xiao-hu, Chen Sing-chi, Hsu Yin, Hu Zhi-bi, Huang Xiu-lan & Fan Quan-jin. 1985. Amaryllidaceae. In: Pei Chien & Ting Chih-tsun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(1): 1--42.
- Davis, A. P. 1999. The Genus Galanthus. Portland.
- Stern, F. C. 1956. Snowdrops and Snowflakes -- A Study of the Genera Galanthus and Leucojum. London.
- Yeo, P. F. 1975. The hybrid origin of some cultivated snowdrops (Galanthus-Amaryllidaceae). Baileya 19: 157-162.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus elwesii. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 01February2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 29, 2007:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1672376
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-307529
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13850527
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:64478-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 332096-2
- IUCN ID: 210319
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 644367
- Zhanhe Ji & Alan W. Meerow "Amaryllidaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 264. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Gerald B. Straley & Frederick H. Utech "Galanthus". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 55, 280, 293. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 86.630 meters (284.219 feet), Standard Deviation = 91.210 based on 352 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus elwesii. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]