Common Names in English:
Doritaenopsis Fusheng's Fairy Shoes Orchid
Herbs or rarely vines
, rarely annual
, strongly mycotrophic, epiphytic, terrestrial
, lithophytic, or rarely aquatic
, usually green and photosynthetic, some without chlorophyll and saprophytic
subterranean or aerial
or stolonoid, usually with spongy
, multilayered velamen. Stems erect
or pendent or modified into creeping
or sympodially or monopodially branched, delicate to stout, or thickened as corms or pseudobulbs
, or greatly reduced, sometimes proliferous (especially diverse
in sympodial orchids) . Leaves solitary, several, or reduced to scales
, basal or cauline, alternate, distichous, or sometimes opposite or whorled
, either convolute or duplicate
, simple, sessile or petiolate
; stipules absent; blade
or not, plicate
, triangular, or laterally flattened, margins
entire. Inflorescences terminal
, spikes, panicles, or rarely cymose
, erect or variously pendent, 1 many-flowered, lax
or dense, flowering successively or simultaneously. Flowers bisexual
, resupinate or not, pedicellate
or sessile, 3-merous, usually bilaterally symmetric
[rarely nearly radially symmetric], with abscission layer between pedicel and peduncle, rarely between ovary and perianth or ovary and pedicel; perianth of 6 tepals in 2 whorls, all petaloid
or sepals sometimes greener and more foliaceous
; sepals alike or not, lateral sepals often connate
(forming synsepal), or all 3 sepals variously connate and/or adnate
; petals 3, median
petal modified as lip, commonly larger or differing in form and color, lateral petals commonly but not always similar to sepals; nectaries of various sorts; extrafloral nectaries sometimes present on pedicels, bracts, or leaf sheaths
; stamens usually 1 2( 3, if 3 the 3d modified into sterile
staminode), all on side opposite lip, fully or partially adnate to style, forming column; pollen grains
, usually in 2 8 pollinia, sometimes subdivided into small packets, rarely granular
, sometimes pollinia with caudicles
and/or stipes; gynoecium 3-carpellate, connate, forming compound
, inferior, 1- or 3-locular ovary; style variously adnate to filaments
; stigmas usually 3-lobed, concave
, part of median stigma lobe
modified into rostellum
, often separating anther
portions of stigma, commonly preventing or in some cases facilitating self-pollination
; ovules numerous
, minute. Fruits capsules, opening (dehiscing) by longitudinal
slits, rarely fleshy
and indehiscent berries
. Seeds numerous (millions in some species), minute; endosperm absent.
Genera ca. 800, species 22,000 35,000 (701 genera, 208 species in the flora ; 1 genus, 6 species introduced) : worldwide except Antarctica, most diverse in tropical forests .
The overall count for orchid genera in the flora includes Spathoglottis plicata Blume, which was recently reported from Palm Beach County, Florida. The plants , known locally since 1982, are apparently widely naturalized in old shellpits. The number of species in the flora includes one newly recognized species in Habenaria that is morphologically described, but not fully treated here. Orchidaceae are by far the largest and most diverse monocot family and rank among the largest families of flowering plants. An accurate account of the number of genera and species has eluded orchid scientists, and species counts published in the last 20 years range from 15,000 to 35,000. New species are continually being described. In addition, numerous natural and artificial hybrids exist.
Although orchids are important in horticulture , most of the plants traded in the national and international market belong to a small number of species and their hybrids in only a few genera; the majority of orchids are not commonly cultivated. Few orchids are economically important outside the horticultural trade: the fruits of several species of Vanilla are the source of the spice vanilla, and the dry roots of some species of Dactylorhiza, Eulophia, and Orchis are made into salep, a flour consumed in northern Africa, the Middle East (especially Turkey), and Asia. Some species are locally used for medicinal purposes; the mucilage from pseudobulbs of several species is sometimes used as glue; and in the Far East the stems of some species of Dendrobium are split into strips used to weave handicrafts. A few orchids have been found to cause contact dermatitis (e.g. , Cypripedium reginae) .
Orchids range vegetatively from Lilliputian plants a few millimeters long (Bulbophyllum Thouars and Platystele Schlechter) to gigantic clusters weighing several hundred kilograms (Grammatophyllum Blume) to some as much as 13.4 meters in height (Sobralia altissima D. E. Bennett & Christenson, a recently described species from Peru) . Likewise, flowers vary in size from less than 1 mm and barely visible to the naked eye (Platystele Garay), to 15 20 cm diameter (some Paphiopedilum Pfitzer, Phragmipedium Rolfe, and Cattleya Lindley spp. ), and ultimately to 76 cm [Phragmipedium caudatum (Lindley) Rolfe]. Weight can vary from a fraction of a gram (many Pleurothallus R. Brown spp.) to nearly 100 grams (Coryanthes Hooker spp.) . Their fragrances vary from delightful (Cattleya Lindley) to repulsive and unbearable (in some species of Bulbophyllum Thouars) . The plants colonize habitats ranging from some of the driest and hottest places on earth to the wettest and coolest, literally occurring from polar regions to the equator. Within the monocots, the most important diagnostic features of Orchidaceae are reduction of adaxial stamens, fusion of the remaining stamens to the gynoecium forming the column, aggregation of pollen into compact pollinia (present elsewhere only in the dicots , in Asclepiadaceae), differentiation of the median petal into the lip, a sometimes complex organ, and the exceedingly small size of the seed, which lacks endosperm. Among other distinguishing characteristics: pollen in the pollinia is usually not available as a nutrient-source (Cleistes Richard ex Lindley being a notable exception), and the often complex interaction with pollinators culminates in the phenomenon of pseudocopulation in several genera (e.g., Ophrys Linnaeus, Caladenia R. Brown sect. Calonema, Drakaea Lindley) . In the latter process , the flower mimics the appearance , the smell, and often the movements of a female wasp, attracting a male of a suitable species that tries to copulate with the flower. It usually only succeeds in becoming attached to a pollinium , which will then be transferred if the male tries to copulate with another flower.
Roots of orchids may be covered with velamen, spongy layers derived from the epidermis ; fleshy thickenings of roots are tuberoids (tubers being restricted to stems) . Stems may be swollen or thickened, underground corms or aerial pseudobulbs. Flowers are often resupinate: the lip (modified median petal) is lowermost, usually as a result of the pedicel being twisted or bent in its development by 180°. Pedicellate ovary, usually used in reference to length , refers to the combined pedicel and ovary. Flowers are not always borne on pedicels; when they are, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a slender ovary and the pedicel. Consequently, because of their slender ovaries, flowers of a racemose spike appear to be pedicellate even though they are sessile, while a spicate raceme has pedicels so short that they appear to be absent. Orchid flowers often have a modified median sepal, the dorsal sepal. Sepals coalescing at their tips form a synsepal. The middle portion of the upper (adaxial) face of the lip is the disc: it may be a thickened callus and may bear hairs , papillae, or other ornamentation. In orchids the style, stigmas, filaments, and one or more anthers are united to form a column; appendages projecting laterally from the stigma are column wings; the lip may be attached to the protrusion at the base of the column to form a column foot ; lateral sepals that are also attached to the foot form a mentum (chin) . In most orchids the column bears a single anther at its apex; the clinandrium is the cavity within which the anther is borne or embedded . Pollen is borne in discrete masses (pollinia) . Genera with mealy (sectile) pollinia may have pollinia within the anther tapering into a caudicle (stalk ), which is attached to a sticky viscidium . Those with waxy pollinia have pollinia attached to one or two stipes (of stigmatic origin and formed outside the anther), which in turn are attached to a viscidium. The various aggregations of pollinia, caudicles, stipes, and viscidium form a pollinarium , the pollination unit carried by pollinators. The median stigma lobe may have a slender extension or little beak (rostellum), which aids in gluing the pollinarium to the pollinator.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Doritaenopsis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5852 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
D. (Doritaenopsis Orchid) · D. Abed-nego (Doritaenopsis Abed-Nego Orchid) · D. Abenice (Doritaenopsis Abenice Orchid) · D. Acapulco (Doritaenopsis Acapulco Orchid) · D. Achy Breaky Heart (Doritaenopsis Achy Breaky Heart Orchid) · D. Acker's Hot Shot (Doritaenopsis Acker's Hot Shot Orchid) · D. Acker's Sweetie (Doritaenopsis Acker's Sweetie Orchid) · D. Acrux (Doritaenopsis Acrux Orchid) · D. Adair (Doritaenopsis Adair Orchid) · D. Adam Carl (Doritaenopsis Adam Carl Orchid) · D. Adam de Bom (Doritaenopsis Adam De Bom Orchid) · D. Addie Stagi (Doritaenopsis Addie Stagi Orchid) · D. Addle Dew (Doritaenopsis Addle Dew Orchid) · D. Adena (Doritaenopsis Adena Orchid) · D. Admiral's Club (Doritaenopsis Admiral's Club Orchid) · D. Adolf Kolping (Doritaenopsis Adolf Kolping Orchid) · D. Affectionato (Doritaenopsis Affectionato Orchid) · D. African Sun (Doritaenopsis African Sun Orchid) · D. Agnes Suzuki (Doritaenopsis Agnes Suzuki Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Charm (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Charm Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Cherry (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Cherry Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Class (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Class Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Cupid (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Cupid Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Girl (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Girl Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Happy (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Happy Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Neon Rose (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Neon Rose Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Pinkie (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Pinkie Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Pink Rose (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Pink Rose Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Ribbon (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Ribbon Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Sound (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Sound Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Sunshine (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Sunshine Orchid) · D. Akatsuka Tatar (Doritaenopsis Akatsuka Tatar Orchid) · D. Akazukin (Doritaenopsis Akazukin Orchid) · D. Akebono (Doritaenopsis Akebono Orchid) · D. Akemi Joyful (Doritaenopsis Akemi Joyful Orchid) · D. Akio Morita (Doritaenopsis Akio Morita Orchid) · D. Alamo (Doritaenopsis Alamo Orchid) · D. Ala Mode (Doritaenopsis Ala Mode Orchid) · D. Albee (Doritaenopsis Albee Orchid) · D. Alberta Kerkela (Doritaenopsis Alberta Kerkela Orchid) · D. Alberta Winter (Doritaenopsis Alberta Winter Orchid) · D. Alberto Romero (Doritaenopsis Alberto Romero Orchid) · D. Alella (Doritaenopsis Alella Orchid) · D. Alene Nobles Stowe (Doritaenopsis Alene Nobles Stowe Orchid) · D. Alex Somogyvari (Doritaenopsis Alex Somogyvari Orchid) · D. Alibay (Doritaenopsis Alibay Orchid) · D. Alice Baker (Doritaenopsis Alice Baker Orchid) · D. Alice Girl (Doritaenopsis Alice Girl Orchid) · D. Alice Henry (Doritaenopsis Alice Henry Orchid) · D. Alice Jewel (Doritaenopsis Alice Jewel Orchid) · D. Alice Loeb (Doritaenopsis Alice Loeb Orchid) · D. Alice's Beth (Doritaenopsis Alice's Beth Orchid) · D. Alice's Bleeding Heart (Doritaenopsis Alice's Bleeding Heart Orchid) · D. Alice's Clara (Doritaenopsis Alice's Clara Orchid) · D. Alice's W. Sewell (Doritaenopsis Alice's W. Sewell Orchid) · D. Alice's Yasmin (Doritaenopsis Alice's Yasmin Orchid) · D. Alice Thaxter (Doritaenopsis Alice Thaxter Orchid) · D. Alisun Gold (Doritaenopsis Alisun Gold Orchid) · D. Alisun Rainbow (Doritaenopsis Alisun Rainbow Orchid) · D. Alliance (Doritaenopsis Alliance Orchid) · D. Allison Greene (Doritaenopsis Allison Greene Orchid) · D. All American Beauty (Doritaenopsis All American Beauty Orchid) · D. Almeria (Doritaenopsis Almeria Orchid) · D. Aloha Kiss (Doritaenopsis Aloha Kiss Orchid) · D. Alouette (Doritaenopsis Alouette Orchid) · D. Alyssa Powers (Doritaenopsis Alyssa Powers Orchid) · D. Amagi Dancer (Doritaenopsis Amagi Dancer Orchid) · D. Amagi Legend (Doritaenopsis Amagi Legend Orchid) · D. Amagi Paradise (Doritaenopsis Amagi Paradise Orchid) · D. Amanda Mary (Doritaenopsis Amanda Mary Orchid) · D. Amanda Nissen (Doritaenopsis Amanda Nissen Orchid) · D. Amazing Beauty (Doritaenopsis Amazing Beauty Orchid) · D. Amazon (Doritaenopsis Amazon Orchid) · D. Amber Bates (Doritaenopsis Amber Bates Orchid) · D. Ambocracker (Doritaenopsis Ambocracker Orchid) · D. American Heritage (Doritaenopsis American Heritage Orchid) · D. Amherst (Doritaenopsis Amherst Orchid) · D. Amigos Para Siempre (Doritaenopsis Amigos Para Siempre Orchid) · D. Amity (Doritaenopsis Amity Orchid) · D. Amour Nancy (Doritaenopsis Amour Nancy Orchid) · D. Amour Rojo (Doritaenopsis Amour Rojo Orchid) · D. Amy Campbell (Doritaenopsis Amy Campbell Orchid) · D. Amy Jahr (Doritaenopsis Amy Jahr Orchid) · D. Amy Louise (Doritaenopsis Amy Louise Orchid) · D. Amy Louise Ballerina (Doritaenopsis Amy Louise Ballerina Orchid) · D. Amy Louise Bright Eyes (Doritaenopsis Amy Louise Bright Eyes Orchid) · D. Amy Louise Pink Eyes (Doritaenopsis Amy Louise Pink Eyes Orchid) · D. Amy Raxter (Doritaenopsis Amy Raxter Orchid) · D. Amy Withers (Doritaenopsis Amy Withers Orchid) · D. Am Happy (Doritaenopsis Am Happy Orchid) · D. Ana Margarita Caso (Doritaenopsis Ana Margarita Caso Orchid) · D. Ancient Memory (Doritaenopsis Ancient Memory Orchid) · D. Andrew (Doritaenopsis Andrew Orchid) · D. Andre Nataniel (Doritaenopsis Andre Nataniel Orchid) · D. Andy's Blaze (Doritaenopsis Andy's Blaze Orchid) · D. Angela (Doritaenopsis Angela Orchid) · D. Angela Grace (Doritaenopsis Angela Grace Orchid) · D. Angelita (Doritaenopsis Angelita Orchid) · D. Angel Eyes (Doritaenopsis Angel Eyes Orchid) · D. Angel Lace (Doritaenopsis Angel Lace Orchid)
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- Bentley, S. L. Native Orchids of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Chapel Hill.
- Brown, P. M. 2002. Wild Orchids of Florida. Gainesville.
- Brown, P. M. 1997. Wild Orchids of the Northeastern United States: A Field Guide. Ithaca, N.Y.
- Brown, P. M. 2000. The Florida Native Orchid Project. Palmetto 20: 610.
- Burns-Balogh, P. and V. A. Funk. 1986. A phylogenetic analysis of the Orchidaceae. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 61.
- Case, F. W. 1987. Orchids of the western Great Lakes region, rev. ed. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. 48.
- Coleman, R. A. 1995. The Wild Orchids of California. Ithaca, N.Y.
- Correll, D. S. 1950. Native Orchids of North America North of Mexico. Waltham, Mass.
- Dressler, R. L. 1981. The Orchids: Natural History and Classification. Cambridge, Mass. Dressler, R. L. 1993. Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family. Portland.
- Homoya, M. A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Bloomington.
- Liggio, J. and A. Liggio. 1999. Wild Orchids of Texas. Austin.
- Luer, C. A. 1972. The Native Orchids of Florida. Bronx.
- Luer, C. A. 1975. The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, Excluding Florida. Bronx.
- Magrath, L. K. 1973. The Native Orchids of the Prairies and Plains Region of North America. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Kansas.
- Morris, F. and E. A. Eames. 1929. Our Wild Orchids: Trails and Portraits. New York.
- Pridgeon, A. M., P. J. Cribb, and F. N. Rasmussen. 1999+. Genera Orchidacearum. 1+ vol. Oxford.
- Rasmussen, F. N. 1985. Orchids. In: R. M. T. Dahlgren et al. 1995. The Families of the Monocotyledons: Structure, Evolution, and Taxonomy. Berlin etc. Pp. 249274.
- Sheehan, T. J. and M. Sheehan. 1994. An Illustrated Survey of Orchid Genera. Portland. Smith, W. R. 1993. Orchids of Minnesota. Minneapolis.
- Szlachetko, D. L. 1995. Systema orchidalium. Fragm. Florist. Geobot., suppl. 3.
- Whiting, R. E. and P. M. Catling. 1986. Orchids of Ontario: An Illustrated Guide. Ottawa.
- Williams, J. G. and A. E. Williams. 1983. Field Guide to Orchids of North America. New York.
- The Royal Horticultural Society Horticultural Database, available here.
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 4749026
- Gustavo A. Romero-González, Germán Carnevali Fernández-Concha, Robert L. Dressler, Lawrence K. Magrath & George W. Argus "Orchidaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 15, 16, 17, 26, 27, 490, 491, 617. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- The Royal Horticultural Society Horticultural Database. Online at RHS.org.uk. [back]