Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Hei Zao, Jun Qian Zi
Common Names in English:
Date Plum, Date-Plum, Guiaca, Jun Qian Zi, Lotus Persimmon, Lotustree, Mamegaki, Qua Thi
Common Names in French:
Faux Lotier, Guyac De Tadone, Plaqueminier Faux Lotier, Plaqueminier Lotier
Common Names in German:
Dattelpflaume, Lotuspflaum, Lotuspflaumenbaum
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Mame Gaki, Mamegaki
Common Names in Korean:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
Churma Kavkazskaja, Khurma Obyknovennaia, цхурма кавказская
Common Names in Spanish:
Caqui, Guayacán Africano
, occasionally with spine-tipped branchlets
. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, entire; stipules absent. Flowers actinomorphic
, usually unisexual
, dioecious, or polygamous, rarely bisexual
. Male flowers often in cymes, sometimes in clusters
or solitary; pistil rudimentary
or absent. Female flowers often solitary, axillary
, imperfect or without stamens. Calyx 3--7-lobed, persistent
and often becoming enlarged in female or bisexual flowers; lobes
abutting or overlapping in bud. Corolla 3--7-lobed; lobes convolute, rarely overlapping or abutting. Stamens hypogynous or at bottom
of corolla, 2--4 X
as many as corolla lobes, rarely as many as corolla lobes and alternate with them; filaments
in pairs. Ovary superior, 2--16-locular; ovules 1 or 2 per locule. Styles 2--8, free or basally united; stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit a ± fleshy
berry, with few to several seeds. Seeds usually oblong
; endosperm sometimes ruminate
Three genera and ca. 500 species: mostly in the tropics; one genus and 60 species (43 endemic) in China.
, deciduous or evergreen
buds absent. Branchlet
sometimes forming a spine. Leaves alternate, occasionally minutely translucent
or with gland
pits. Flowers dioecious or polygamous. Male flowers in axillary
cymes, usually on basal part of current
year's branchlets, deciduous soon after anthesis
; stamens 4 to numerous
, often paired
and forming 2 whorls; ovary rudimentary
. Female flowers usually solitary, axillary; staminodes 1--16 or absent; stigma often 2-cleft. Calyx usually 3--5(--7) -lobed, sometimes truncate
. Corolla urn-shaped, campanulate
, or tubular
, 3--5(--7) -lobed, deciduous. Berries
to somewhat leathery, usually with an enlarged persistent
calyx. Seeds 1--10(or more), often laterally compressed
About 485 species: pantropical and extending into temperate regions ; 60 species in China, most abundant in SE and SW China, several incompletely known and of uncertain status. 
Species Diospyros lotus
Trees , deciduous. Bark grayish black to grayish brown. Petiole 0.7--1.5 cm; leaf blade elliptic to ovate-oblong, 5--13 X 2.5--6 cm, submembranous, abaxially drying green or glaucous and with dark veinlets , base obtuse , broadly cuneate, or subrounded, apex acuminate to acute, lateral veins 7--10 per side, reticulate veinlets clearly defined, flat, and dark. Male flowers 1--3 together; pedicel to 6 mm; calyx lobes 4(or 5) ; corolla reddish to pale yellow, urn-shaped, ca. 4 mm, lobes 4; stamens 16. Female flowers subsessile , pale green to reddish; calyx lobes 4; corolla urn-shaped, ca. 6 mm, lobes 4 or rarely 5; staminodes 8; ovary 8-locular, glabrous except for apex; styles 4. Fruiting calyx lobes 4, ovate , apex obtuse. Berries pale yellow, becoming bluish black with a glaucous bloom, subglobose to ellipsoid , 1--2 cm in diam. Seeds brown, compressed , ca. 10 X 6 mm in diam. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Oct-Nov. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: green, red
Size: 20-30' tall.
500--2500 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,286 meters (0 to 7,500 feet).
Culture: Space 20-30' apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Primulanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Dactylus trapezuntinus • Diospyros calycina • Diospyros mediterranea • Diospyros microcarpa • Diospyros umlovok
Publishing author : Lour. Publication : Fl. Cochinch. 1: 226 1790 [Sep 1790]
Members of the genus Diospyros
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 58 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
D. angulata (Bois D') · D. australis (Black-Plum) · D. blancoi (Mabolo) · D. boutoniana (Bois D') · D. celebica (Indonesian Ebony) · D. chrysophyllos (Bois D') · D. crassiflora (Ebony) · D. decandra (Gold Apple) · D. digyna (Axle Grease Plant) · D. ebenum (Indian Ebony) · D. egrettarum (Bois D') · D. hemiteles (Bois D') · D. hillebrandii (Elama) · D. kaki (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Hachiya' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Fuyu' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Ichikikei Jiro' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Jiro' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Kostata' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Maekawa Jiro' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Matsumoto Wase Fuyu' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Saijo' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Sheng' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Tamopan' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. kaki 'Tanenashi' (Japanese Persimmon) · D. leucomelas (Bois D') · D. lotus (Date Plum) · D. lycioides (Karroo Bluebush) · D. macassar (Macassar Ebony) · D. malabarica (Indian Persimmon) · D. marmorata (Andaman Marblewood) · D. melanida (Bois D') · D. mun (Ebony) · D. neraudii (Bois D') · D. nitida (Black Persimmon) · D. nodosa (Bois D') · D. oleifera (Oil Persimmon) · D. pterocalyx (Bois D') · D. revaughanii (Bois D') · D. revoluta (Black Apple) · D. rhombifolia (Diamond-Leaf Persimmon) · D. rumphii (Streaked Ebony) · D. sandwicensis (Lama) · D. sinensis (Chinese Persimmon) · D. sintenisii (Chinese Persimmon) · D. tessellaria (Black Ebony) · D. texana (Texas Persimmon) · D. tomentosa (Nepal Ebony) · D. vaccinioides (Small Persimmon) · D. virginiana (American Persimmon) · D. virginiana 'Campbell Nc10' (American Persimmon) · D. virginiana 'John Rick' (American Persimmon) · D. virginiana 'Meader' (American Persimmon) · D. virginiana 'Peiper' (American Persimmon) · D. virginiana 'Prok' (American Persimmon) · D. virginiana 'Ruby' (American Persimmon) · D. virginiana 'Szukis' (American Persimmon) · D. virginiana 'Yates' (American Persimmon)
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- A naturalist in western China, with vasculum, camera, and gun; being some account of eleven years' travel, exploration, and observation in the more remote parts of the Flowery kingdom, by Ernest Henry Wilson...with an introduction by Charles Sprague Sargent...With one hundred and one full-page illustrations and a map. London, Methuen & co., ltd. url .
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- A review of the identifications of the species described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, Manila, Bureau of public printing, 1905. url p. 57.
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- An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1827. url p. 1185.
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- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 210, p. 412, p. 522.
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- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 724.
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- Practical plant propagation; an exposition of the art and science of increasing plants as practiced by the nurseryman, florist and gardener, by Alfred C. Hottes. New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc., 1922. url p. 108.
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- Rafinesque, C. S. Sylva telluriana: Mantis. synopt.: new genera and species of trees and shrubs of North America, and other regions of the earth: omitted or mistaken by the botanical authors and compilers, or not properly classified, now reduced by their natural affinities to the proper natural orders and tribes /By C.S. Rafinesque; being a supplement to the Flora telluriana. 1838 Philadelphia: Printed for the author and publisher, 1838. url p. 164.
- Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1859: agriculture. Washington, D.C.: George Bowman, printer, 1860. url p. 346.
- Reports of the Director. .. / Experimental Farms. Ottawa: Experimental Farms, 1888-1916. url p. 307.
- Seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1903-1913. url p. 15.
- Sino-Iranica; Chinese contributions to the history of civilization in ancient Iran, with special reference to the history of cultivated plants and products / by Berthold Laufer -- Chicago, 1919. url p. 435, p. 435, p. 618, p. 618.
- Species Blancoanae: a critical revision of the Philippine species of plants described by Blanco and by Llanos /by E.D. Merrill. 1918 Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1918. url p. 303.
- Sport and science on the Sino-Mongolian frontier / London: A. Melrose, Ltd., 1918. url .
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 122, p. 362, p. 376.
- Sylva Telluriana. Mantis synopt. New genera and species of trees and shrubs of North America, and other regions of the earth, omitted or mistaken by the botanical authors and compilers, or not properly classified, now By C.S. Rafinesque. Being a supplement to the Flora Telluriana. Philadelphia, Printed for the author and publisher, 1838. url p. 164.
- Sylva telluriana. Mantis synopt. New genera and species of trees and shrubs of North America, and other regions of the earth, omitted or mistaken by the botanical authors and compilers, or not properly classified, now By C. S. Rafinesque. Being a supplement to the Flora telluriana. Philadelphia, Printed for the author and publisher, 1838. url p. 164.
- Sylva telluriana. Mantis. synopt. New genera and species of trees and shrubs of North America, and other regions of the earth, omitted or mistaken by the botanical authors and compilers, or not properly classified, no PhiladelphiaPrinted for the author and publisher1838 url p. 164.
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- The Australasian fruit culturist, containing full and complete information as to the history, traditions, uses, propagation and culture of such fruits as are suitable to Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland, Western Melbourne, A. M'Kinley, 1893. url p. 294.
- The California horticulturist and floral magazine. San Francisco, Calif.: F.A. Miller & Co., 1870- url p. 49.
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- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 967.
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- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
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- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url p. 294.
- The industries of Japan: together with an account of its agriculture, forestry, arts and commerce / J.J. Rein. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1889. url p. 247.
- The journal of the Horticultural Society of London. London, [England]: Published for the Society, by Longman and Co., 1846-1855. url p. 174, p. 175, p. 245.
- The new materialism: dictatorial scientific utterances and the decline of thought / by Lionel S. Beale. London: E. Stanford, [189-?] url p. 9.
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- The trees of Great Britain & Ireland / by Henry John Elwes and Augustine Henry. Edinburgh: Priv. print., 1906-13. url .
- World Plant Conservation Bibliography WCMC, Royal Botanic Gardens url p. 625.
- Yearbook of agriculture. WashingtonU.S. Govt. Print. Off. url p. 434, p. 593.
- [Publications] - Bureau of Government Laboratories. Manila, Bureau of Public Printing, 1903-1906. url p. 57.
- Li Shu-gang (as Lee Shu-kang). 1987. Ebenaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 60(1): 84-154.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Participants of the FFI/IUCN SSC Central Asian regional tree Red Listing workshop, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (11-13 July 2006) 2007. Diospyros lotus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 31January2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 13, 2007:
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), EURISCO
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Science Museum of Korea, National Science Museum of Korea Plant
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2670006
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-505971
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13765812
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:322631-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 14296
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 505971
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 322629-1
- IUCN ID: 205499
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: DILO8
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 35677
- Shugang Li, Michael G. Gilbert & Frank White "Ebenaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 215. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Diospyros". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 215. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Diospyros lotus". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 224. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 712.330 meters (2,337.041 feet), Standard Deviation = 868.420 based on 12 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]