Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in English:
Sweet Cyperus, English Galingale, Galingale, Sweet Galingale
Common Names in French:
Souchet Long, Souchet Odorant
Common Names in German:
Hohes Zypergras, Langes Zypergras
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Spanish:
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
or not, stoloniferous
or not. Roots
, principally adventitious. Stems (culms
) usually trigonous
, occasionally terete
, rarely compressed
, usually solid, rarely hollow or septate
. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, usually 3-ranked, rarely 2-ranked or multi-ranked, bases
enclosing stem, margins
usually fused; junction of sheaths and blades
often with adaxial
flaps of tissue
of hair (ligules) ; blades frequently absent from some basal leaves
, rarely from cauline leaves, when present divergent or ascending
, flat, folded, plicate
, rolled, or terete, linear
) a shortened axis; glumaceous
) 1-many, spirally arranged
, sometimes 2-ranked, usually appressed
or ascending; scales usually all fertile
, each subtending
a single flower, sometimes proximal
and/or distal scales empty; lateral
spikes often with basal, usually empty, usually 2-keeled scale (prophyll) ; occasionally prophyll subtending and enclosing rachilla, bearing 1 pistillate
, sometimes (0-) 3 staminate flowers
and empty scales (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Secondary inflorescences panicles, often modified to corymb, pseudoumbel, cyme (anthela), raceme
, spike, or capitulum (head
), rarely single spike, usually subtended by foliaceous
or, less frequently, glumaceous bracts; secondary inflorescences sometimes simulating spikelets (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Flowers hypogynous, bisexual
in most genera, unisexual
in Scleria, Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia; perianth absent or with (1-) 3-6(-30) bristles
and/or scales, usually falling off with fruit; stamens usually (1-) 3, rarely more, usually distinct
; pistils 1, 2-3(-4) -carpellate, fused, locule 1; style undivided or branches 2-3(-4) ; stigma sometimes papillate
. Fruits achenes, usually trigonous or biconvex
; pericarps thin (except in Scleria) . Seeds 1; testa thin, free
from pericarp; embryo basal; endosperm abundant. x
= 5-ca. 100.
Genera ca. 100, species ca. 5000 (27 genera, 843 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
No consensus exists regarding the number of genera and the overall relationships of genera within Cyperaceae. The most recent account of the family (P. Goetghebeur 1998) recognized 104 genera distributed among 4 subfamilies and 14 tribes . That arrangement differs somewhat from that of J. Bruhl (1995) . With one minor exception the arrangement of the family here follows that of Goetghebeur.
The family is characterized by the occurrence of a number of unusual cytological features including: (1) chromosomes with diffuse centromeres , (2) post-reductional meiosis, and (3) pollen grains formed from tetrads in which 3 of the 4 microspores fail to develop. The first two features are found in at least some Juncaceae and are unique to the two families. Juncaceae also have pollen in tetrads, but in that family all four microspores produce pollen grains. Some species in some genera of Cyperaceae (particularly Eleocharis) possess chromosomes with localized centromeres (S. S. Bir et al. 1993) . The wide range of chromosome numbers found in Cyperaceae is largely because of agmatoploidy; polyploidy has been hypothesized for some genera, especially Eleocharis, although polyploidy has not been demonstrated unequivocally.
Because of morphologic similarities in vegetative and inflorescence characters, the family has commonly been associated with Poaceae. Cytological features discussed above clearly indicate that to be a superficial similarity . Data from rbcL studies also support the view that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related (M. R. Duvall et al. 1993b; G. M. Plunkett et al. 1995) ; they do support the concept of close relationship between Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
For most families of flowering plants the phenological data given are flowering times. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season , sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is more or less fully formed but not yet ripe . The fruiting period provided covers the entire range of the taxon . Quite a difference between fruiting periods in different parts of the range of the species may well occur, especially for widespread species and species with extensive elevation range.
For a recent, comprehensive review of the economic importance of Cyperaceae, see D. A. Simpson and C. A. Inglis (2001) .
or less often annual
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
, rarely tuberous
solitary or not, trigonous
) prickles. Leaves usually basal; ligules absent; blades
abaxially, flat, V-, or inversely W-shaped in cross
. Inflorescences terminal
, rarely pseudolateral, 1st order
subumbellate to capitate, 2d order with spicate
or digitately arranged spikelets
, rarely a solitary spikelet; spikelets 1-150; 1st order rays unequal (rarely equal) in length
singly from the axils of inflorescence bracts
; involucral bracts
1-22, spirally arranged
at culm apex, spreading
, leaflike. Spikelets: scales
to 76, distichous, each subtending
, borne spicately or digitately at ends of rays (occasionally proliferous) . Flowers bisexual
], in axils of distichous floral scales, bases
often decurrent onto rachilla as ± hyaline
; perianth absent; stamens 1-3; styles linear
, 2-3-fid, base deciduous or persistent
; stigmas 2-3. Achenes biconvex
, flattened, or trigonous.
Species ca. 600: pantemperate and tropical .
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: pale green
Size: 8-10' tall.
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 154 meters (506 feet).
- 4 Grassland
- 4.6 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
- 4.7 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.2 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 5.8 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.8 Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land [more info]
Culture: Space 36-48" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- Family: Cyperaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Sedge Family
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Cyperus badius • Cyperus bardii • Cyperus brachystachys • Cyperus fenzelinus • Cyperus loadius
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Cyperus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 172 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. acuminatus (Short-Point Flatsedge) · C. aggregatus (Inflated Scale Flatsedge) · C. albostriatus (Dwarf Umbrella Grass) · C. alopecuroides (Foxtail Flatsedge) · C. alternifolia (Umbrella Plant) · C. alternifolius var. Gracilis (Dwarf Umbrella Plant) · C. amabilis (Foothill Flatsedge) · C. amuricus (Asian Flatsedge) · C. aromaticus (Navua Sedge) · C. articulatus (Jointed Flatsedge) · C. auriculatus (Eared Flatsedge) · C. bipartitus (Brook Flatsedge) · C. calcicola (Caribbean Flatsedge) · C. cephalanthus (Buttonbush Flatsedge) · C. compressus (Poorland Flat Sedge) · C. confertus (West Indian Flatsedge) · C. congestus (Clustered Flatsedge) · C. croceus (Baldwin's Cyperus) · C. cuspidatus (Coastal Plain Flatsedge) · C. cyperinus (Old World Flatsedge) · C. cyperoides pseudoflavus (Pacific Island Flatsedge) · C. deamii (Deam's Flatsedge) · C. dentatus (Toothed Flatsedge) · C. dentoniae (Hairy Flatsedge) · C. diandrus (Umbrella Flat Sedge) · C. difformis (Smallflower Umbrella Sedge) · C. diffusus (Dwarf Umbrella Grass) · C. digitatus (Finger Flatsegde) · C. dioicus (Flatsedge) · C. dipsaceus (Wright Flatsedge) · C. distans (Piedmont Flatsedge) · C. distinctus (Marshland Flatsedge) · C. echinatus (Globe Flatsedge) · C. elegans (Royal Flatsedge) · C. entrerianus (Deeprooted Sedge) · C. eragrostis (Drain Flat-Sedge) · C. erythrorhizos (Red-Root Flat Sedge) · C. esculentus (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus L. var. esculentus (Chufa Flatsedge) · C. esculentus var. esculentus (Chufa Flatsedge) · C. esculentus var. hermannii (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus var. leptostachyus (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus var. macrostachyus (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus var. sativus (Chufa) · C. exaltatus (Tall Flat-Sedge) · C. fauriei (Alpine Flatsedge) · C. fendlerianus (Fendler Flatsedge) · C. filicinus (Fern Flatsedge) · C. filiformis (Wiry Flatsedge) · C. flavescens (Pale Flatsedge) · C. flavicomus (White-Edge Flatsedge) · C. flexuosus (Vahl's Flatsedge) · C. floribundus (Rio Grande Sedge) · C. floridanus (Florida Flatsedge) · C. fugax (Withering Flatsedge) · C. fuligineus (Limestone Flatsedge) · C. fuscus (Brown Flatsedge) · C. giganteus (Giant Flatsedge) · C. glaber (Galingale) · C. gracilis (Slimjim Flatsedge) · C. granitophilus (Granite Flatsedge) · C. grayi (Gray's Flatsedge) · C. grayoides (Illinois Flatsedge) · C. haspan (Haspan Flatsedge) · C. hermaphroditus (Hermaphrodite Flatsedge) · C. hillebrandii (Hillebrand's Flatsedge) · C. hillebrandii var. decipiens (Hillebrand's Flatsedge) · C. hillebrandii var. hillebrandii (Hillebrand's Flatsedge) · C. houghtonii (Houghton's Flatsedge) · C. hyalinus (Queensland Sedge) · C. hypochlorus (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypochlorus var. brevior (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypochlorus var. hypochlorus (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypochlorus var. kauaiensis (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypopitys (Pinewoods Sedge) · C. hystricinus (Bristly Flatsedge) · C. imbricatus (Shingle Flatsegde) · C. involucratus (Galingale) · C. iria (Iria Flatsedge) · C. isocladus (Dwarf Papyrus) · C. javanicus (Javanese Flatsedge) · C. kunthianus (Maui Flatsedge) · C. kyllinga (Spikesedge) · C. laevigatus (Smooth Flatsedge) · C. lancastriensis (Many-Flowered Umbrella-Sedge) · C. lanceolatus (Epiphytic Flatsedge) · C. lecontei (Le Conte's Flatsedge) · C. lentiginosus (Latin American Flatsedge) · C. ligularis (Alabama Swamp Flatsedge) · C. longus (Sweet Cyperus) · C. louisianensis (Louisiana Flatsedge) · C. lucidus (Leafy Flat-Sedge) · C. lupulinus lupulinus (Great Plains Flatsedge) · C. lupulinus subsp. macilentus (Great Plains Flatsedge) · C. manimae (Smoothstem Flatsedge) · C. manimae var. asperrimus (Spectacular Flatsedte) · C. meyenianus (Meyen's Flatsedge) · C. mutisii (Mutis Flatsedge) · C. nanus (Indian Flatsedge) · C. nanus var. nanus (Indian Flatsedge)
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- A Manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants / Edinburgh: A. and C. Black, 1875. url , , , .
- A compendium of the Cybele britannica; or British plants in their geographical relations. London, Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer, 1870. url , , .
- A compendium of the English flora. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman, 1836. url p. 13.
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 50.
- A dictionary of popular names of the plants which furnish the natural and acquired wants of man, in all matters of domestic and general economy. Their history, products, & uses, by John Smith. London, Macmillan, 1882. url p. 146.
- A first report on the relations between climates and crops. By Cleveland Abbe. Washington [D.C.]: Govt. Print. Off., 1905. url p. 192.
- A guide to the natural history of the Isle of Wight: a series of contributions by specialists relating to the various branches of natural history and kindred subjects / edited by Frank Morey. Newport, Isle of Wight: The County Press, 1909. url p. 187.
- A manual flora of Egypt / by Reno Muschler. With a preface by Paul Ascherson and Georg Schweinfurth. Berlin, R. Friedlaender, 1912. url p. 1255.
- A manual of botany, including the structure, classification, properties, uses, and functions of plants. London, J & A. Churchill, 1887. url p. 732.
- A manual of botany: including the structure, classification, properties, uses, and functions of plants. London, John Churchill and Sons, 1870. url p. 699.
- A manual of scientific terms, pronouncing, etymological, and explanatory, chiefly comprising terms in botany, natural history, anatomy, medicine, and veterinary science, with an appendix of specific names. Designed for the use of by Rev. James Stormonth Edinburgh, Maclachlan and Stewart, 1885 url p. 112.
- A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c.. .. / with an introduction to botany. .. By Samuel Frederick Gray. .. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821. url p. 70.
- A new British flora: British wild flowers in their natural haunts / described by A. R. Horwood; with sixty-four plates in colour representing 350 different plants, from drawings by J. N. Fitch and many illustrations from photographs. London: Gresham, 1919. url , p. 51, p. 52.
- A new British flora; British wild flowers in their natural haunts, described by A. R. Horwood, with 64 plates in col. representing 350 different plants, from drawings by J. N. Fitch and many illus. from photo. London, Gresham Pub. Co., 1919. url p. 51.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 112.
- A student's text-book of botany / by Sydney H. Vines. London: Macmillan, 1895. url p. 551.
- A student's text-book of botany, by Sydney H. Vines. With 483 illustrations. London, Macmillan & co., 1896. url .
- A supplement to F. Hamilton Davey's Flora of Cornwall / by Edgar Thurston and Chambré C. Vigurs. Truro: Oscar Blackford, Royal Printeries, 1922. url p. 141.
- A supplement to the Pharmacopia, and treatise on pharmacology in general: including not only the drugs and preparations used by practitioners of medicine, but also most of those employed in the chemical arts: together with a collection of the most useful medical formulæ. . by Samuel Frederic Gray. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. url p. 15.
- A topographical history of Staffordshire; including its agriculture, mines and manufactures. Memoirs of eminent natives; statistical tables; and every species of information connected with the local history of the county. With a succinct acco Comp. from the most authentic sources, by William Pitt. Newcastle-under-Lyme, Printed by and for J. Smith, 1817. url p. 572.
- Alpine flowers and rock gardens illustrated in colour / described by Walter P. Wright; with notes on "Alpine plants at home", by William Graveson. London: Headley Brothers, 1911. url p. 288.
- Alpine flowers for English gardens / by W. Robinson. London: Murray, 1879. url p. 435, p. 81.
- Alpine flowers for gardens: rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs / by W. Robinson. London: John Murray, 1903. url p. 65.
- Alpine flowers for gardens; rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs, by W. Robinson. London, J. Murray, 1910. url p. 65.
- An account of the flowering plants, ferns and allies of Harleston. With a sketch of the geology, climate, and natural characteristics of the neighbourhood. Compiled and edited by Francis William Galpin. To which are added Observations on the birds of the district, by Charles Candler. London, Bartlett, 1888. url p. 27.
- An illustrated dictionary of scientific terms. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, pref. 1878. url p. 138.
- An introduction to the natural system of botany: or, A systematic view of the organization, natural affinities, and geographical distribution of the whole vegetable kingdom; together with the uses of the most important species in medicine, the arts, By John Lindley. New York, G. & C. & H. Carvill, 1831. url p. 303, p. 372.
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 104, p. 155, p. 172, p. 189, p. 231, p. 231, p. 256, p. 299, p. 376, p. 82.
- Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. New-York: 1824-1876. url p. 434.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 8 1897 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 157.
- Blackwell, E. A curious herbal: containing five hundred cuts, of the most useful plants, which are now used in the practice of physick engraved on folio copper plates, after drawings taken from the life /by Elizabeth Blackwell. To which is added a short description of ye plants and their common uses in physick. 2 1739 London: Printed for Samuel Harding, 1737-1739. url plate 316.
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 332.
- Botanical publications of E.D. Merrill. [New York, etc., 1899- url p. 108.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1902 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 10, p. 10, p. 256, p. 333, p. 9.
- C. E. Hobbs Botanical hand-book of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use. Especially designed as a reference book for druggists and apothecaries. Comp. and pub. by Charles E. Hobbs. Boston, Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url p. 168.
- C.E. Hobbs' Botanical hand-book: of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopœial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use: their properties, productions and uses in an abb Boston: Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url .
- Cassell's dictionary of practical gardening; an illustrated encyclopædia of practical horticulture for all classes; ed. by Walter P. Wright. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1902. url p. 66.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 997.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 997.
- Catalogue of the African plants London, Printed by order of the Trustees, 1896-1901. url .
- Catalogue of the Hanbury Herbarium, in the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain / compiled by E.M. Holmes. London: Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1892. url p. 127.
- Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine Archipelago, Manila, Bureau of printing, 1910. url p. 104.
- Colour in my garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. Illustrated in colour, by Anna Winegar. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1918. url p. 356.
- Companion to the Botanical magazine: being a journal, containing such interesting botanical information as does not come within the prescribed limits of the magazine; with occasional figures /by W.J. Hooker. 2 1836-1837 London: Printed by E. Conchman. .. for the proprietor, S. Curtis, 1835-1836 [i.e., 1835-1837] url p. 279, p. 321.
- Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams and ferns / by A. de Bary; translated and annotated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott; with 241 woodcuts and an index. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884. url p. 359, p. 635.
- Cybele Britannica: or British Plants and their geographical relations. London, 1847-59. url p. 284, p. 40, p. 434, p. 60, p. 61.
- Early British botanists and their gardens, based on unpublished writings of Goodyer, Tradescant, and others, by R. T. Gunther. With nine plates and twenty-one other illustrations. Oxford, Printed by F. Hall for the author at the University Press, 1922. url p. 337, p. 392.
- Edinburgh journal of natural history and of the physical sciences. Edinburgh [etc.]: Published for the proprietor [etc.], 1835-1840. url p. 83.
- English botany, or, coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: G. Bell, 1873. url p. 41, p. 69.
- English cyclopaedia, a new dictionary of universal knowledge, conducted by Charles Knight. London, Bradbury, 1854-61. url .
- English plant names from the tenth to the fifteenth century by John Earle. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1880. url .
- Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. LondonW. Heinemann1916 url p. 461.
- Flora Indica, or, Descriptions of Indian plants / by the late William Roxburgh. Serampore: Printed for W. Thacker, 1832. url p. 188.
- Flora Malesiana. general editor, C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, 1950- url p. 608, p. 644, p. 661.
- Flora medica; a botanical account of all the more important plants used in medicine in different parts of the world. London, Longman, 1838. url p. 613.
- Flora of Guernsey and the lesser Channel Islands: namely, Alderney, Sark, Herm, Jethou, and the adjacent islets. London, Dulau, 1901. url p. 187, p. 29, p. 31, p. 382, p. 437, p. 457.
- Flora of Sussex; or a list of the flowering plants & ferns found in the county of Sussex, with localities of the less common species. London, Simpkin [et al.]1907. url p. 143.
- Flora of the Bristol coal-field. Edited (for the Bristol Naturalists' Society) by James Walter White. .. Bristol, J. Fawn & Son [etc.]1881- url p. 213, p. 214.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url p. 11, p. 9.
- Flora of tropical Africa. By Daniel Oliver. .. assisted by other botanists. London, L. Reeve, 1868-1902. url p. 366.
- Flora vectensis: being a systematic description of the phænogamous or flowering plants and ferns indigenous to the Isle of Wight. London, W. Pamplin, 1856. url , , .
- Florigraphia Britannica; or, Engravings and descriptions of the flowering plants and ferns of Britain. London, Groombridge, 1857. url .
- Florigraphia britannica, or, Engravings and descriptions of the flowering plants and ferns of Britain / by Richard Deakin. London: Groombridge, 1857. url p. 45.
- Flowering plants of the Riviera: a sescriptive account of 1800 of the more interesting species / by H. Stuart Thompson; with an introduction on Riviera vegetation by A. G. Tansley London; New York: Longmans, Green, 1914. url p. 223.
- Flowers of the field, by the late Rev. C. A. Johns. London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1911. url p. 523.
- Flowers of the field. Rev. throughout and edited by Clarence Elliott. With an appendix including the Pipe-wort tribe (Eriocauleae) the Sedge tribe (Cyperaceae) and the Grass tribe (Gramineae) LondonG. Routledge[n.d.] url p. 306.
- Garden colour: Spring, by Mrs. C. W. Earle; Summer, by E. V. B.; Autumn, by Rose Kingsley; Winter, by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs; etc., etc. Notes & water color sketches by Margaret Waterfield. 1905 London, E. P. Dutton & company, 1905. url p. 184, p. 189.
- Gardening for amateurs; a simple, complete, and practical guide for garden lovers, edited by H. H. Thomas. Illustrated by twenty-four coloured plates and many hundreds of photographs and sketches. New York: Funk and Wagnalls company,  url p. 574.
- Gardening for beginners; a handbook to the garden, by E.T. Cook. [London]"Country Life" [etc., 1914] url .
- General indexes to the thirty-six volumes of English botany: to which is added, an alphabetical index to English fungi: making together, a catalogue of indigenous British plants. London: J. Sowerby, 1814. url p. 32.
- Grisebach, A. H. R. Flora of the British West Indian islands /by A.H.R. Grisebach. -18 London, L. Reeve, 1864. url p. 575.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 367.
- Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Based on the French work of Messrs. Decaisne and Naudin entitled 'Manuel de l'amateur des jardins, ' and including the original woodcuts by Riocreux and Leblanc. Boston, Estes & Lauriat, 1873. url p. 658.
- Handbook of the British flora: a description of the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to, or naturalised in the British Isles. For the use of beginners and amateurs. London, L. Reeve, 1908. url p. 479.
- Hardwicke's science-gossip: an illustrated medium of interchange and gossip for students and lovers of nature. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866- url p. 104, p. 234, p. 251, p. 38, p. 42, p. 69, p. 74.
- Illustrations of the British flora: a series of wood engravings, with dissections, of British plants. London, L. Reeve, 1919. url .
- Illustrations of the natural orders of plants with groups and descriptions. Reduced from the original folio ed. London: Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, 1868. url p. 473.
- Index of British plants according to the London catalogue... London: G. Bell, 1889. url p. 92.
- Journal of a tour in Marocco and the Great Atlas, London, Macmillan and co., 1878. url p. 144.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. 1914 London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 109, p. 111, p. 14, p. 183, p. 202, p. 211, p. 226, p. 236, p. 293, p. 296, p. 342, p. 360, p. 370, p. 383, p. 387, p. 389, p. 43, p. 59, p. 6, p. 60.
- Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. Truro, Eng., Workers of Cornwall Ltd. url p. 375.
- Journal of the proceedings of the Linnean Society. London: The Society, 1857-1864. url p. 112.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Herbarium Willing
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- GBIF-Spain, Botánica, Universidad de León: LEB-Cormo
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario de la Universidad de Sevilla, SEV
- GBIF-Spain, Hortus Botanicus Sollerensis Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Almería, HUAL
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas: FCO
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Justus-Liebig-Universitat Giessen
- SysTax, Museu Botanico Municipal
- SysTax, SysTax
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1672136
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-237327
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2706391
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:305053-1
- IUCN ID: 204047
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 732050
- Peter W. Ball, A. A. Reznicek, David F. Murray "Cyperaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 3, 4, 192, 243, 252. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Gordon C. Tucker, Brian G. Marcks & J. Richard Carter "Cyperus". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 7, 141, 154, 162, 163, 164, 168, 170, 184,. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 202.930 based on 2,136 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
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