Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Arabic:
Assis, Habb El 'aziz
Common Names in Chinese:
You Sha Cao, You Sha Dou
Common Names in Danish:
Chufanød, Fladaks, Jordmandler
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Chufa, Yellow Nutsedge, Chufa Flat-Sedge, Chufa Flatsedge, Earth Almond, Earth Nut, Earth-Almond, Ground Almond, Rushnut (Usa), Tiger Nut, Tigernut, Water-Grass, Water-Grass (Usa), Weedy Nutgrass Cyperus Esculentus, Weedy Nutsedge, Weedy Yellow Nutsedge, Yellow Nut Sedge, Yellow Nut-Grass, Yellow Nut-Grass (Usa), Yellow Nut-Sedge (Usa), Yellow Nutgrass, Zulu Nut
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Amande de Terre, Choufa, Gland De Terre, Noix Tigrée, Souchet Comestible, Souchet Rampant, Souchet Tracant, Souchet-Sultan
Common Names in German:
Chufanuß, Eßbares Zypergras, Erdmandel, Erdmandelgras
Common Names in Italian:
Babagiggi, Cipero Dolce, Doldichini, Zigolo Dolce, Zizzola Terrestre
Common Names in Japanese:
Ki Hamasuge, Shokuyou Gayatsuri
Common Names in Nepalese:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Chufa, Junca, Juncinha, Junquinha Mansa, Tochufa
Common Names in Portuguese (Brazil):
Tiririca, Tiririca-Amarela, Tiririca-Mansa
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Cebollín, Chufa, Juncia Avellanada, Tubérculo De Chufa
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Thai:
Haeo Chin, Haeo Thai (Central Thailand), Ma Niao (Northern Thailand)
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
or not, stoloniferous
or not. Roots
, principally adventitious. Stems (culms
) usually trigonous
, occasionally terete
, rarely compressed
, usually solid, rarely hollow or septate
. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, usually 3-ranked, rarely 2-ranked or multi-ranked, bases
enclosing stem, margins
usually fused; junction of sheaths and blades
often with adaxial
flaps of tissue
of hair (ligules) ; blades frequently absent from some basal leaves
, rarely from cauline leaves, when present divergent or ascending
, flat, folded, plicate
, rolled, or terete, linear
) a shortened axis; glumaceous
) 1-many, spirally arranged
, sometimes 2-ranked, usually appressed
or ascending; scales usually all fertile
, each subtending
a single flower, sometimes proximal
and/or distal scales empty; lateral
spikes often with basal, usually empty, usually 2-keeled scale (prophyll) ; occasionally prophyll subtending and enclosing rachilla, bearing 1 pistillate
, sometimes (0-) 3 staminate flowers
and empty scales (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Secondary inflorescences panicles, often modified to corymb, pseudoumbel, cyme (anthela), raceme
, spike, or capitulum (head
), rarely single spike, usually subtended by foliaceous
or, less frequently, glumaceous bracts; secondary inflorescences sometimes simulating spikelets (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Flowers hypogynous, bisexual
in most genera, unisexual
in Scleria, Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia; perianth absent or with (1-) 3-6(-30) bristles
and/or scales, usually falling off with fruit; stamens usually (1-) 3, rarely more, usually distinct
; pistils 1, 2-3(-4) -carpellate, fused, locule 1; style undivided or branches 2-3(-4) ; stigma sometimes papillate
. Fruits achenes, usually trigonous or biconvex
; pericarps thin (except in Scleria) . Seeds 1; testa thin, free
from pericarp; embryo basal; endosperm abundant. x
= 5-ca. 100.
Genera ca. 100, species ca. 5000 (27 genera, 843 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
No consensus exists regarding the number of genera and the overall relationships of genera within Cyperaceae. The most recent account of the family (P. Goetghebeur 1998) recognized 104 genera distributed among 4 subfamilies and 14 tribes . That arrangement differs somewhat from that of J. Bruhl (1995) . With one minor exception the arrangement of the family here follows that of Goetghebeur.
The family is characterized by the occurrence of a number of unusual cytological features including: (1) chromosomes with diffuse centromeres , (2) post-reductional meiosis, and (3) pollen grains formed from tetrads in which 3 of the 4 microspores fail to develop. The first two features are found in at least some Juncaceae and are unique to the two families. Juncaceae also have pollen in tetrads, but in that family all four microspores produce pollen grains. Some species in some genera of Cyperaceae (particularly Eleocharis) possess chromosomes with localized centromeres (S. S. Bir et al. 1993) . The wide range of chromosome numbers found in Cyperaceae is largely because of agmatoploidy; polyploidy has been hypothesized for some genera, especially Eleocharis, although polyploidy has not been demonstrated unequivocally.
Because of morphologic similarities in vegetative and inflorescence characters, the family has commonly been associated with Poaceae. Cytological features discussed above clearly indicate that to be a superficial similarity . Data from rbcL studies also support the view that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related (M. R. Duvall et al. 1993b; G. M. Plunkett et al. 1995) ; they do support the concept of close relationship between Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
For most families of flowering plants the phenological data given are flowering times. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season , sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is more or less fully formed but not yet ripe . The fruiting period provided covers the entire range of the taxon . Quite a difference between fruiting periods in different parts of the range of the species may well occur, especially for widespread species and species with extensive elevation range.
For a recent, comprehensive review of the economic importance of Cyperaceae, see D. A. Simpson and C. A. Inglis (2001) .
or less often annual
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
, rarely tuberous
solitary or not, trigonous
) prickles. Leaves usually basal; ligules absent; blades
abaxially, flat, V-, or inversely W-shaped in cross
. Inflorescences terminal
, rarely pseudolateral, 1st order
subumbellate to capitate, 2d order with spicate
or digitately arranged spikelets
, rarely a solitary spikelet; spikelets 1-150; 1st order rays unequal (rarely equal) in length
singly from the axils of inflorescence bracts
; involucral bracts
1-22, spirally arranged
at culm apex, spreading
, leaflike. Spikelets: scales
to 76, distichous, each subtending
, borne spicately or digitately at ends of rays (occasionally proliferous) . Flowers bisexual
], in axils of distichous floral scales, bases
often decurrent onto rachilla as ± hyaline
; perianth absent; stamens 1-3; styles linear
, 2-3-fid, base deciduous or persistent
; stigmas 2-3. Achenes biconvex
, flattened, or trigonous.
Species ca. 600: pantemperate and tropical .
Species Cyperus esculentus
; stolons soft, spongy
dried, 2-8(-15) cm, bearing tubers (3-) 6-11 mm diam. Culms
15-60 (-100) cm × 0.6-3.4 mm, glabrous
. Leaves 3-7, flat to
V-shaped or flanged V-shaped, (6-) 20-40(-80) cm × 2-4 (-6.5)
Inflorescences: spikes broadly ellipsoid
(12-) 18-30 × (12-) 18-35 mm; rachis 4-17 mm; rays 4-10, (0.3-)
2-12 cm; bracts (3-) 4-5(-7), ± horizontal to ascending
45(-75) °, V-shaped to flanged V-shaped, (1.5-) 5-30 cm ×
0.5-4 mm; rachilla persistent
, 0.3-0.5 mm wide. Spikelets
(3-) 10-20(-28), divaricate
or ascending, yellowish brown to dark
to linear-lanceoloid, compressed-quadrangular, (5-)
10-20(-55) × (1.2-) 1.4-2(-3) mm; floral
, ovate-lanceolate, laterally 7-9-ribbed,
laterally yellowish brown to dark brown medially brownish, reddish,
or greenish, ovate
, or ovate-deltate, medially 3-ribbed, 1.8-2.7(-3.4)
× (1-) 1.5-1.8(-2.4) mm, apex acute or sub-acute. Flowers:
(1-) 1.2-1.5(-2.1) mm; styles (0.7-) 1-1.2(-2.2) mm; stigmas
(1.2-) 1.8-2.3(-4) mm. Achenes (seldom maturing) brown, sessile,
ellipsoid, (1.1-) 1.3-1.5(-1.6) × 0.3-0.6(-0.8) mm, apex obtuse
Varieties 4: nearly worldwide. [source]
Cyperus esculentus is a widespread and polymorphic species. Although seven varieties have been recognized (G. Kukenthal (1935-1936), recent studies based primarily on spikelet features provided support for four varieties (P. Schippers et al. 1995). Cyperus esculentus var. esculentus is restricted to the Old World. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: bronze, brown, chartreuseyellow-green, pale green, pale yellow
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 280 meters (918 feet).
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.2 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps, Fens , Peatlands
- 5.8 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.8 Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land [more info]
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- Family: Cyperaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Sedge Family
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Cyperus aureus • Cyperus esculentus • Cyperus melinorhizus • Cyperus tuberosus • Pycreus esculentus
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Cyperus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 172 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. acuminatus (Short-Point Flatsedge) · C. aggregatus (Inflated Scale Flatsedge) · C. albostriatus (Dwarf Umbrella Grass) · C. alopecuroides (Foxtail Flatsedge) · C. alternifolia (Umbrella Plant) · C. alternifolius var. Gracilis (Dwarf Umbrella Plant) · C. amabilis (Foothill Flatsedge) · C. amuricus (Asian Flatsedge) · C. aromaticus (Navua Sedge) · C. articulatus (Jointed Flatsedge) · C. auriculatus (Eared Flatsedge) · C. bipartitus (Brook Flatsedge) · C. calcicola (Caribbean Flatsedge) · C. cephalanthus (Buttonbush Flatsedge) · C. compressus (Poorland Flat Sedge) · C. confertus (West Indian Flatsedge) · C. congestus (Clustered Flatsedge) · C. croceus (Baldwin's Cyperus) · C. cuspidatus (Coastal Plain Flatsedge) · C. cyperinus (Old World Flatsedge) · C. cyperoides pseudoflavus (Pacific Island Flatsedge) · C. deamii (Deam's Flatsedge) · C. dentatus (Toothed Flatsedge) · C. dentoniae (Hairy Flatsedge) · C. diandrus (Umbrella Flat Sedge) · C. difformis (Smallflower Umbrella Sedge) · C. diffusus (Dwarf Umbrella Grass) · C. digitatus (Finger Flatsegde) · C. dioicus (Flatsedge) · C. dipsaceus (Wright Flatsedge) · C. distans (Piedmont Flatsedge) · C. distinctus (Marshland Flatsedge) · C. echinatus (Globe Flatsedge) · C. elegans (Royal Flatsedge) · C. entrerianus (Deeprooted Sedge) · C. eragrostis (Drain Flat-Sedge) · C. erythrorhizos (Red-Root Flat Sedge) · C. esculentus (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus L. var. esculentus (Chufa Flatsedge) · C. esculentus var. esculentus (Chufa Flatsedge) · C. esculentus var. hermannii (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus var. leptostachyus (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus var. macrostachyus (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus var. sativus (Chufa) · C. exaltatus (Tall Flat-Sedge) · C. fauriei (Alpine Flatsedge) · C. fendlerianus (Fendler Flatsedge) · C. filicinus (Fern Flatsedge) · C. filiformis (Wiry Flatsedge) · C. flavescens (Pale Flatsedge) · C. flavicomus (White-Edge Flatsedge) · C. flexuosus (Vahl's Flatsedge) · C. floribundus (Rio Grande Sedge) · C. floridanus (Florida Flatsedge) · C. fugax (Withering Flatsedge) · C. fuligineus (Limestone Flatsedge) · C. fuscus (Brown Flatsedge) · C. giganteus (Giant Flatsedge) · C. glaber (Galingale) · C. gracilis (Slimjim Flatsedge) · C. granitophilus (Granite Flatsedge) · C. grayi (Gray's Flatsedge) · C. grayoides (Illinois Flatsedge) · C. haspan (Haspan Flatsedge) · C. hermaphroditus (Hermaphrodite Flatsedge) · C. hillebrandii (Hillebrand's Flatsedge) · C. hillebrandii var. decipiens (Hillebrand's Flatsedge) · C. hillebrandii var. hillebrandii (Hillebrand's Flatsedge) · C. houghtonii (Houghton's Flatsedge) · C. hyalinus (Queensland Sedge) · C. hypochlorus (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypochlorus var. brevior (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypochlorus var. hypochlorus (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypochlorus var. kauaiensis (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypopitys (Pinewoods Sedge) · C. hystricinus (Bristly Flatsedge) · C. imbricatus (Shingle Flatsegde) · C. involucratus (Galingale) · C. iria (Iria Flatsedge) · C. isocladus (Dwarf Papyrus) · C. javanicus (Javanese Flatsedge) · C. kunthianus (Maui Flatsedge) · C. kyllinga (Spikesedge) · C. laevigatus (Smooth Flatsedge) · C. lancastriensis (Many-Flowered Umbrella-Sedge) · C. lanceolatus (Epiphytic Flatsedge) · C. lecontei (Le Conte's Flatsedge) · C. lentiginosus (Latin American Flatsedge) · C. ligularis (Alabama Swamp Flatsedge) · C. longus (Sweet Cyperus) · C. louisianensis (Louisiana Flatsedge) · C. lucidus (Leafy Flat-Sedge) · C. lupulinus lupulinus (Great Plains Flatsedge) · C. lupulinus subsp. macilentus (Great Plains Flatsedge) · C. manimae (Smoothstem Flatsedge) · C. manimae var. asperrimus (Spectacular Flatsedte) · C. meyenianus (Meyen's Flatsedge) · C. mutisii (Mutis Flatsedge) · C. nanus (Indian Flatsedge) · C. nanus var. nanus (Indian Flatsedge)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- NLBIF, Limnodata
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- The New York Botanical Garden, Species of Eastern Brazil Vascular Plant Specimens
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2660417
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-236532
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2494459
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:304439-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 12901
- IUCN ID: 204039
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMCYP06100
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 165723
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- Standard Deviation = 395.600 based on 832 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
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