The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, 2-25[-50+] cm (sometimes aromatic
). Stems usually 1, erect
at nodes), usually branched, glabrous
or ± strigillose
). Leaves usually mostly cauline [basal]; alternate [opposite]; petiolate
or sessile; blades
to lanceolate or linear
, sometimes 1-3-pinnately [palmati-pinnately] lobed
entire or irregularly toothed
glabrous or ± strigillose to villous [lanate
] (hairs mostly basifixed). Heads disciform
], borne singly (peduncles sometimes dilated
). Involucres broadly hemispheric
, 3-12+[-15+] mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, 13-30+ in 2-3+ series, margins and apices (colorless, light to dark brown, or purplish) scarious
. Receptacles flat to convex
[conic], epaleate (sometimes ± covered with persistent stalks of florets
). Ray florets 0 [5-8+, pistillate
; corollas white] (peripheral pistillate florets 8-80+ in 1-3+ series; corollas usually none). Disc florets 12-200+[-600+], bisexual
, fertile [functionally staminate
]; corollas ochroleucous
or yellow, tubes
sometimes adaxially saccate
(3-) 4, ± deltate (sometimes one larger than others, usually each with central resin canal). Cypselae obovoid
, ob-compressed or -flattened, ribs
, sometimes becoming wings
, faces ± papillate
(pericarps relatively thin, sometimes with myxogenic cells
and/or 2 lateral resin sacs
) ; pappi 0. x = 10.
Species 55: introduced ; s Old World; introduced also (perhaps some native ) in Mexico, South America, s Oceanic Islands .
Some species of Cotula are widely naturalized . F. Hrusa et al. (2002) reported Cotula mexicana (de Candolle) Cabrera as established on golf courses in California; it is similar to C. australis and differs in leaf blades mostly 1-pinnate, receptacles pilose , and disc florets functionally staminate.
Primarily seasonal Coastal Pools
up to 2,000 m.
in brackish water but also in fresh water
. Growing in still or slowly
moving water, sometimes forming floating mats. It is also found in
marshes and on wet sand. It is usually annual
, but in deep water
it may perennial
. Flowers from April to June.
Pollinated by insects and is self incompatible, frequently setting no seed outside its range . Disseminules flattened cypselas without a pappus, perhaps dispersed by adhesion to animals. It has been reported to be a weed in drainage channels . It is a decorative plant..
List of Habitats :
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 5.16 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools
- 5.17 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: African Flowering Plants Database , SANBI, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, Tropicos. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:0F39F984-E69F-4A93-B1C1-BC2389A76032
Last scrutiny: 12-Aug-09
Members of the genus Cotula
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. australis (Australian Waterbuttons) · C. bipinnata (Ferny Cotula) · C. coronopifolia (Bachelors Buttons) · C. coronopifolia 'Cream Buttons' (Brassbuttons) · C. hemisphaerica (Pin-Cushion Weed) · C. hispida (Goudknopjes) · C. matricarioides (Pineapple Weed) · C. mexicana (Mexican Brassbuttons) · C. pilulifera (Stinknet) · C. prostrata (Yerba De Tago)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 164.
- Bulletin of the Natural History Museum. London: The Natural History Museum, c1993-2002. url p. 170.
- Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society. 14 1904 Cape Town, : The Society. url p. 283.
- Water plants; a study of aquatic angiosperms. Cambridge, University Press, 1920. url p. 313, p. 379, p. 424.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- GCC: Global Compositae Checklist. Release date: November 18, 2009
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed January 27, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- Helme, N. & Raimondo, D. 2010. Cotula myriophylloides. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 31January2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9022655
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-20818
- IUCN ID: 202348
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2242677
- Linda E. Watson "Cotula". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 52, 486, 543, 544. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Helme, N. & Raimondo, D. 2010. Cotula myriophylloides. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2012. [back]