Common Names in English:
Coast Pepper-Bush, Coastal Sweetpepperbush, Creel's Calico Summersweet, Creel's Calico Sweet Pepper Bush, Pink-Spire, Summer-Sweet, Summersweet, Summersweet Clethra, Sweet Pepper Bush, Sweet Pepperbush, White Alder
or deciduous. Buds, branches, leaf blades
, inflorescences, and flowers with sparse to dense usually stellate
, often mixed with simple
hairs. Branches sympodial, usually pubescent
at least when young. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, simple, generally crowded near apex of twigs
; leaf blade usually abaxially ± pubescent and adaxially glabrous
serrate or occasionally entire. Inflorescences terminal
, usually a many-flowered slender raceme
, either solitary or umbellate-clustered, sometimes sparsely branched near base
and thus appearing paniculate
, pubescent, bracteate
. Flowers bisexual
. Pedicel articulated at base of sepals. Sepals 5, imbricate, persistent
. Petals 5, usually white, free
or coherent at base, oblong
, inside often pilose
from base to middle
, apical margin
often fimbriate, apex rounded- to truncate-emarginate. Stamens 10, in 2 whorls, distinct
but generally adnate
to base of petals; anthers
, ± V-shaped, introrse
, opening by short apical pores
. Ovary superior, 3-locular, globose
but apically depressed
at style base, pubescent, with axile placentation
; ovules 20-40 per locule. Style 1, persistent, apex usually 3-cleft or -lobed. Capsule subglobose to globose, pubescent, 3-locular. Seeds many, ovoid-subtrigonous, thin-walled, surface impressed-reticulate.
One genus and ca. 65 species: America, Asia, N Atlantic Islands (Madeira ) ; seven species (three endemic) in China.
ID Features: Fragrant spires of white flowers in mid to late summer. Persistent fruit capsules. Obovate, alternate, deciduous leaves with serrations. Suckering, colonial type growth.
Flowers: Numerous , small white flowers held in racemes .. Racemes are 3" to 5" long and 0.75" wide. Nicely fragrant. Blooms in July and August. Blooms on current seasons growth. Showy. • Bloom Period: April, May, June, July, August. • Flower Color: near white, white
Seeds: Fruit: Small capsules. Turn brown in fall and persist for a year or two.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate, deciduous leaves. 1.5" to 4" long and 1" to 2" wide. Obovate shape with acute to accuminate tip . Serrate leaf margins . Variable creamy white variegation. Late to leaf out in spring . • Fall foliage: Yellow-green to golden brown. Can be showy at times.
Size: 4-6' tall.
Landscape Uses: Screen . Specimen perhaps. In groupings. Shrub border . Colonizing nature can be useful. Highly useful for late summer fragrant flowers. Site the plant so fragrance can be appreciated. Tolerant of ocean-side plantings . Naturalistic/native landscapes. • Liabilities: Relatively pest free except for spider mites . Spider mites can be severe on plants in hot, dry locations.
Most commonly founded in moist woodlands, especially near water. Zone 4.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 548 meters (0 to 1,798 feet).
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Clethra alnifolia var. tomentosa (Lam.) Michx. • Clethra tomentosa Lam.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Clethra
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 26 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acuminata (Cinnamon Clethra) · C. alnifolia (Coast Pepper-Bush) · C. alnifolia 'Anne Bidwell' (Summersweet Clethra) · C. alnifolia 'Ann Bidewell' (Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Chattanooga' (Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Compacta' (Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Cottondale' (Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Fern Valley Late Sweet' (Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Fern Valley Pink' (Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Hokie Pink' (Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Hummingbird' (Hummingbird Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Novia Scotia' (Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Paniculata' (Paniculata Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Pink Spires' (Pink Spires Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Rosea' (Pink Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Ruby Spice' (Ruby Spice Summer Sweet) · C. alnifolia 'September Beauty' (September Beauty Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Sherry Sue' (Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'Sixteen Candles' (Dwarf Summersweet) · C. alnifolia'Sweet Suzanne' (Sweet Suzanne Summersweet) · C. alnifolia 'White Dove' (Summersweet) · C. arborea (Folhado) · C. barbinervis (Japanese Clethra) · C. delavayi (Delavay Summersweet) · C. monostachya (Clethra) · C. pringlei (Mexican Summersweet)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 20, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3890031
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-23455
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13742435
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:327570-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 10901
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 23454
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 327570-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDCLE01020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CLTO
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 10
- Haining Qin & Peter Fritsch "Clethraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 238. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Clethra". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 238. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 64.700 meters (212.270 feet), Standard Deviation = 88.780 based on 338 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]