Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
San Jian Shan, Yuan Bian Zhong
Common Names in English:
Chinese Plum Yew
, dioecious (occasionally monoecious) ; bud scales persistent
. Leaves 2-ranked, pectinately arranged and leafy branchlets
in outline, decussate or ± opposite, sessile or subsessile
, basally somewhat twisted; blade
, linear-lanceolate, or occasionally lanceolate, midvein
green abaxially, elevated
on both surfaces, stomatal
, each comprising 11-24 rows
of stomata, usually appearing white because of powdery covering, as wide as or usually wider than midvein, marginal
bands green, as wide as or narrower than midvein, resin canal abaxial. Pollen cones borne on branches of preceding year, aggregated into capitula of 6-8; capitula axillary, solitary, pedunculate
or subsessile; peduncle usually with several spirally arranged
, rarely naked; cones subtended by 1 ovate
or triangular-ovate bract; microsporophylls
4-16, each with (2 or) 3(or 4) pollen sacs
; pollen nonsaccate. Seed cones borne from axils of terminal
bud scales, 1-6(-8) per bud, long pedunculate; floral
axis with several pairs of decussate bracts each bearing 2 erect
ovules. Seeds ripening in 2nd year, drupelike, completely enclosed by succulent aril, ovoid
, or globose
, apex mucronate
. Cotyledons 2. Germination epigeal.
One genus and eight to eleven species: China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam; six species (three endemic) in China.
There is currently debate about whether the Cephalotaxaceae should continue to be recognized as separate from the Taxaceae. Cephalotaxus appears to form a distinct lineage related to Taxaceae; however, it differs from that family in its seed cones, which have several 2-ovulate bracts, instead of a single fertile , 1-ovulate bract. The total number of distinct species of Cephalotaxus is quite open to question and much in need of detailed biosystematic study.
Habit: Evergreen .
Size: 20-30' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,135 meters (0 to 3,724 feet).
Culture: Space 15-20' apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial to Full Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Coniferopsida ()
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 Ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Cephalotaxus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 14 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. fortunei (Chinese Plum Yew) · C. hainanensis (Hainan Cufei) · C. harringtonia (Cow-Tail Pine) · C. harringtonia 'Prostrata' (Cow-Tail Pine) · C. harringtonia f. drupacea (Japanese Plum Yew) · C. harringtonia var. drupacea (Cow's Tail Pine) · C. harringtonia var. Fastigiata (Cow-Tail Pine) · C. harringtonia var. Fastigitata (Harrington Plum-Yew) · C. harringtonia var. koreana (Korean Plum Yew) · C. harringtonia var. sinensis (Chinese Plum Yew) · C. harringtonia 'Duke Gardens' (Cow-Tail Pine) · C. harringtonia 'Korean Gold' (Cow-Tail Pine) · C. harringtonia 'Watnong' (Cow-Tail Pine) · C. harringtonii var. harringtonii (Japanese Plum Yew)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Chinese economic trees, [Shanghai]Printed by the Commercial Press, Ltd. url , , p. 45.
- Conifers and their characteristics / New York: Macmillan, 1920. url .
- Conifers and their characteristics. London, J. Murray, 1920. url p. 239.
- Conservation and sustainable management of trees, report of the third regional workshop, held at Army Hotel, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 August, 1997 WCMC url p. 127, p. 13.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 33, p. 507.
- Embryogenesis in plants. London, Methuen; url p. 340, p. 342, p. 367.
- Gymnosperms; structure and evolution, by Charles Joseph Chamberlain. .. with 397 figures. Chicago, Ill., The University of Chicago Press url p. 335.
- Inventory of seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1914-1924. url p. 52.
- Meehan's monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany, and kindred subjects. Phila., PA: T. Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url .
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 26.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 401.
- Studies on the plant cell. pt.1-8. Boston, Ginn and Co., 1904-1905 url , p. 753.
- Taxonomic literature: a selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types (TL2) Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, 1976-1988. url p. 262.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 434, p. 506.
- The World List of Threatened Trees WCMC, IUCN url p. 115.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 322, p. 322, p. 328, p. 328.
- The embryology of Larix, Urbana, The University of Illinois Press, 1943. url p. 82.
- Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington: New Zealand Institute. url p. 398.
- Trees, shrubs and vines of the northeastern United States. .. together with an account of the principal foreign hardy trees, shrubs and vines cultivated in our country, and found in Central Park, New York City by H.E. Parkhurst. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1903. url p. 436, p. 7.
- Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo & Chao Chi-son. 1978. Cephalotaxaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 423-436.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Conifer Specialist Group 1998. Cephalotaxus fortunei. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 31January2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Forest Research Institute, Department of Natural Forests, Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, CIBIO, Alicante:ABH-GBIF
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3497112
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Con-4031
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14705837
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:261815-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 261815-1
- IUCN ID: 198733
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 725502
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li & Robert R. Mill "Cephalotaxaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 85. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li & Robert R. Mill "Cephalotaxus". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 85. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 181.000 meters (593.832 feet), Standard Deviation = 293.250 based on 13 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]