Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Da Ye Nan Yang Shan, kuo Ye Nan Yang Shan (Taiwan)
Common Names in English:
Bunya Bunya, Bunya Nut, Bunya Pine, Bunya-Bunya, Bunya-Bunya (Aust), Bunya-Bunya Tree, Bunya-Pine, False Monkey Puzzle Tree
Common Names in Japanese:
Bunyabunya, hiroha Nonanyou Sugi
, dioecious or monoecious, with relatively large pith
and resin in cortex. Leaves spirally arranged
or decussate, sessile, decurrent. Cones unisexual
. Pollen cones axillary
, solitary or clustered; microsporophylls
, spirally arranged, sessile; microsporangia 4-20, external, suspended, arranged in 2 rows
; pollen sacs
split longitudinally; pollen nonsaccate. Seed cones solitary, terminal on branchlets, maturing in 2nd or 3rd year; bracts numerous, spirally arranged; ovulate
with bracts on 1 side, each with 1 ovule at base
abaxially; ovules connate with ovulate scales or with bracts (when ovulate scales degenerate) ; bracts of mature
cones deciduous, flattened, woody or thickly leathery, bearing 1 seed in basal part (if developed), sometimes adnate
with ligulate seed scales in center of adaxial
surface, apex triangular or caudate
. Seeds connate with bracts or detached, flattened, winged
or not. 2n = 26.
Three genera and 41 species: Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines; Australia, New Zealand, SW Pacific Islands, South America; two genera and four species (all introduced ) in China.
monoecious, occasionally dioecious; branches whorled
or almost so; winter buds
small. Leaves spirally arranged
, needlelike to broadly ovate
or triangular, varied in shape
and size even on same tree. Pollen cones axillary
, or ellipsoid
densely arranged. Seed cones erect
, ellipsoid, or ovoid to subglobose; ovulate
; bracts of mature
cones large, woody, distal part thickened, distal margin sharply and transversely ridged
, apex reflexed
or upcurved, pointed
; seed scales adnate
with bracts in basal, seed-bearing part, detached in apical part, sometimes thickened and exposed. Seeds connate
with bracts, sometimes with 2 apparent lateral
formed from bract. Cotyledons usually 2, occasionally 4. Germination hypogeal or epigeal.
Nineteen species: Papua New Guinea; Australia (including Norfolk Island), New Caledonia, South America; three species (introduced ) in China.
Species Araucaria bidwillii
Trees to 50 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h.; bark dark gray-brown, thick, flaking ; crown pyramidal ; branchlets dense, pendulous, green, glabrous . Leaves radially spreading , bright green, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or triangular-ovate, flattened, slighty incurved , hard, thick, leathery, lacking a midvein but with numerous , parallel, thin veins, stomatal lines abaxial ; leaves of same year dimorphic : those of young trees and vegetative branchlets longer (0.7-2.8 cm) and more loosely arranged than those of old trees and cone-bearing branchlets, those at middle of branchlets 2.5-6.5 cm, apex acuminate or acute. Pollen cones axillary , solitary, cylindric . Seed cones ovoid-subglobose, ca. 30 × 22 cm; bracts oblong-elliptic or oblong-ovate, margin relatively thick, wingless, apex triangular, reflexed ; seed scales thickened, exposed at apex. Seeds elongate-elliptic, wingless. Pollination Jun, seed maturity after autumn of 3rd year. [source]
Flowers: Flower Conspicuous: No value
Foliage: Drooping limbs covered with sharplky pointed leaves to 2 in. long • Foliage Shape: Lance-shaped • Normal foliage color: Green • Underside foliage: Green • Juvenile foliage: Green • Mature foliage: Green • New foliage: Green • Spring foliage: Green • Summer foliage: Green • Fall foliage: Green • Winter foliage: Green
Growth Rate: Moderate Growing • Size: Moderate growing to 80 ft . high, 20 ft. wide.
Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Watering can be reduced after establishment. Feed with a general purpose fertilizer before new growth begins in spring .
Araucaria bidwillii is a large, emergent tree
rainforest on basaltic or other igneous substrates that is sometimes
associated with A. cunninghamii. It occupies the ecotone
between moist angiosperm-dominated forest
and drier vine
with partly deciduous trees, particularly in the southern part of
. The forest is divided
and smaller woods
by ‘balds’, coarse
grasslands or open savannas
which form sharp boundaries with the forest patches. Annual
is 1,100-1,400 mm in the southern area, with heavy rains in summer
but with a dry season
from April/May to September. In contrast to
this, the northern populations lie
close to the wettest part of the
continent, causing a more evenly distributed annual precipitation
of 1,500-2,000 mm (Mill
Abundant seed is produced in ‘mast years’ at approximately three-year intervals. Seeds remain in the cone until after it falls off the tree; they may be dispersed by water flowing in creeks and gullies, rolling down a slope or by animal vectors such as the Mountain Brush-tail Possum, Trichosurus caninus (Smith et al. 2007).
List of Habitats :
- 1 Forest
- 1.9 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane [more info]
Culture: Space over 40' apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun
Moisture: Water Requirements: Water regularly, when top 3 in. of soil is dry.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Abies araucana (Molina) Poir. • Araucaria dombeyi A. Rich. • Araucaria imbricata Pav. • Columbea imbricata (Pav.) Carrière • Columbea quadrifaria Salisb. • Dombeya chilensis Lam. • Pinus araucana Molina
Members of the genus Araucaria
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
A. angustifolia (Brazilian Monkey Puzzle Tree) · A. araucana (Monkey Puzzle) · A. bidwillii (Bunya Bunya) · A. columnaris (Cook Pine) · A. cunninghamii (Hoop Pine) · A. heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine) · A. heterophylla 'Monia' (Majestic Beauty ® Star Pine) · A. hunsteinii (Klinkii Pine) · A. rulei (Rule Araucaria) · A. subulata (Narrow-Leaved Araucaria)
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- A catalogue of the Coccidæ of the world. [By] Mrs. Maria E. Fernald, A.M. Amherst, Mass., Carpenter & Morehouse, 1903. url p. 293, p. 98.
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- Among cannibals; an account of four years' travels in Australia and of camp life with the aborigines of Queensland; by Carl Lumholtz...tr. by Rasmus B. Anderson... New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1889. url .
- Annual report of the Director of Forestry. Manila [etc.] url p. 49.
- Bulletin / Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College. [S.l.: s.n.], 1888- url p. 293.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52 2005 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 17, p. 33, p. 399, p. 431, p. 438, p. 496.
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- Flora Malesiana. general editor, C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, 1950- url p. 420, p. 420, p. 423.
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- Shade and ornamental trees of California, by Merritt B. Pratt, state forester. Sacramento?1922? url p. 18, p. 18.
- Sturtevant's notes on edible plants / Edited by U.P. Hedrick. Albany: J.B. Lyon, 1919. url p. 60.
- The Coccidae of California: a descriptive list of the different scale insects found in and reported from California / by Edward K. Carnes. Sacramento: [State Horticultural Commission], 1906. url p. 20, p. 23, p. 6.
- The Coccidae of California; a descriptive list of the different scale insects found in and reported from California / by Edward K. Carnes. Sacramento, W. W. Shannon, 1906. url p. 20, p. 23, p. 6.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 232.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 487, p. 98.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 40 1980 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 392.
- The Monthly bulletin of the State Commission of Horticulture. Sacramento, Calif.: The Commission, 1911-1919. url , p. 104, p. 131.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 420.
- Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo, Tsui Hung-pin & Chen Chia-jui. 1978. Araucariaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 24-31.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Thomas, P. 2011. Araucaria bidwillii. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 30January2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Herbario SANT, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, SANT herbarium vascular plant collection
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2670730
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Con-2845
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14705933
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:261684-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 3835
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 506779
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 261684-1
- IUCN ID: 192370
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ARBI12
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 21985
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li & Robert R. Mill "Araucariaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 9. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li & Robert R. Mill "Araucaria". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 9. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Araucaria bidwillii". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 9. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Thomas, P. 2011. Araucaria bidwillii. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012. [back]