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Common Names in Albanian:
Bredhi i bardhë
Common Names in Arabic:
Common Names in Azerbaijani:
Avropa ağ şamı
Common Names in Basque:
Common Names in Belarusian:
Common Names in Bulgarian:
Common Names in Catalan, Valencian:
Common Names in Chinese:
欧洲冷杉 (ou zhou leng shan)
Common Names in Croatian:
Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
European Silver Fir, Abete-Blanco, Christmas-Tree, Christmastree, Edeltanne, Sapin-Blanc, Silver Fir, Swiss Pine, White Fir
Common Names in Esperanto:
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Sapin, Sapin Argenté, Sapin Blanc, sapin pectiné
Common Names in German:
Edeltanne, Gemeine, Pechbaum, Silbertanne, Tanne, Weißtanne, Weiß Tanne, Weisstanne, Weißtanne
Common Names in Greek (modern):
Common Names in Hungarian:
Fehér Fenyö, Fejér Fenyö, Fenyöfa, Fésüs Fenyö, Jegenye Fenyöla, Keresztes Fenyö, Közönséges jegenyefenyo
Common Names in Italian:
Abete Argentato, Abete Bianco
Common Names in Lithuanian:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Edelgran, Vanlig edelgran
Common Names in Occitan:
Common Names in Polish:
Jalyca, Jel, jodla pospolita, Jodła pospolita, Syhla
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Romanian:
Brad, Brad argintiu, Brad Nemeş, Brădac, Brădaică, Brădan, Bradău, Brădişor, Brădoaie, Brădoi, Brădui, Brăduleţ, Bread, Buhaci, Cepi, Hăciugă, Haşcă, Il, Nemeş, Pin Alb, Porob, Sihlă, Sîlhă
Common Names in Russian:
Pihta Evropeiskaia, Пихта белая, пихта белая (pikhta belaya)
Common Names in Serbian:
jedla, Jela, Omora
Common Names in Slovak:
Common Names in Slovene:
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Spanish, Castilian:
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Turkish:
Orta Avrupa göknarı
Common Names in Ukrainian:
, crown usually spirelike to conic, sometimes flat to round
topped in age. Bark
initially thin, smooth
, bearing resin blisters, in age furrowed
. Branches whorled
, irregular internodal
branches occasionally produced
sprouting (growing from a dormant
bud) ; short (spur) shoots
absent; leaf scars
, ± circular to broadly elliptic
, flush with twig
surface, slightly depressed
, or slightly raised evenly all around. Buds ovate
or not, apex rounded
. Leaves borne singly, persisting 5 or more years, spirally arranged
but often proximally twisted so as to appear either 1-ranked (pointing up like toothbrush bristles
) or 2-ranked, sessile, typically constricted
and often twisted above the somewhat broadened base
absent; leaves on vegetative
branches flattened, frequently grooved
adaxially, usually notched
to rounded at apex; leaves on fertile
branches sometimes appearing 4-sided, upright, sharp-pointed to rounded at apex; resin canals 2. Cones borne on year-old twigs
. Pollen cones grouped, ovate or oblong-cylindric, leaving gall-like protuberances
after falling, yellow to red, green, blue, or purple. Seed cones maturing in 1 season
to oblong-cylindric or cylindric
, not falling whole but scale by scale, cone axis persisting as an erect "spike" on branch
shed individually, fan-shaped, lacking apophysis and umbo; bracts included
to exserted. Seeds winged
, the wing-seed juncture bearing resin sac; cotyledons 4--10. x
Species ca. 42: widespread in north temperate regions , North America, Mexico, Central America, Eurasia (s to Himalayas, s China, and Taiwan), n Africa.
In Abies several traditionally accepted species have closely allied sibling species , e.g. , A. balsamea -- A. fraseri, A. bifolia -- A. lasiocarpa, and A. magnifica -- A. procera. Other species may be more distinct morphologically, but many of these still appear to have evolved in geographic isolation without strong reproductive barriers developing. Thus, when distributions of species overlap, introgression between the taxa is the rule ; this may make it difficult to assign certain individuals to a species. In the interests of nomenclatural stability , I have accepted the taxa recognized by the U.S. Forest Service (E.L. Little Jr. 1979). This classification does not recognize varieties based on variations in bract characteristics but recognizes species that perhaps would be treated as varieties in other conifer genera. The only exceptions to this treatment are some necessary changes within A. concolor and A. lasiocarpa. Cases of introgression are discussed under the taxa involved. Some distinct or possibly distinct geographic populations deserve further study and may warrant future taxonomic recognition.
Most North American firs are major components of vegetation, especially in the boreal, Pacific Coast coniferous , and western montane coniferous forests, where they are important for watershed management . They are cut for pulpwood and lumber and, largely from plantations, for Christmas trees . All our species, especially Abies concolor, and several exotics are grown---some more than others---as ornamentals . Firs provide cover , and their leaves are important as food, for various birds and mammals. Species of Abies frequently have a pleasant odor; their foliage has been used as a stuffing material for pillows . Most commercial products with "pine odors" are in fact scented with essential oils distilled from Abies foliage by Russian farmers. A similar oil could be derived from balsam fir in North America.
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: n/a • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: 12-15' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,911 meters (0 to 9,551 feet).
Culture: Space 20-30' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Subclass: Pinidae () - Cronquist et al., 1966
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Abies alba apennina Brullo • Abies alba var. pardei (Gaussen) Silba • Abies alba var. podolica R. I. Schröd. • Abies argentea Chambray • Abies baldensis (Zuccagni) Nyman • Abies chlorocarpa Purk. Ex Nyman • Abies excelsa Link • Abies pardei Gaussen • Abies pectinata< /i> (Lam.) Lam. & Dc. • Abies picea (L.) Lindl. • Peuce abies (Du Roi) Rich. • Picea excelsa Wender. • Picea pectinata (Lam.) Loudon • Pinus abies Du Roi • Pinus abies var. pectinata (Lam.) H. Christ • Pinus baldensis Zuccagni • Pinus lucida Salisb. • Scelsi & Spampinato
Publishing author : Mill . Publication : Gard. Dict., ed. 8. n. 1 1768 [16 Apr 1768]
Members of the genus Abies
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 126 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
A. alba (European Silver Fir) · A. alba f. pendula (European Silver Fir) · A. alba 'Green Spiral' (European Silver Fir) · A. amabilis (Beautiful Fir) · A. balsamea (Balsam Fir) · A. balsamea fraseri (Balsam Fir) · A. balsamea f. hudsonia (Hudsonia Dwarf Silver Fir) · A. balsamea lasiocarpa (Subalpine Fir) · A. balsamea var. nana (Dwarf Balsam Fir) · A. balsamea x sibirica (Balsam Fir) · A. beshanzuensis (Baishan Fir) · A. bifolia (Rocky Mountain Subalpine Fir) · A. borisii-regis (King Boris Fir) · A. bracteata (Bristlecone Fir) · A. cephalonica (Greek Fir) · A. cephalonica 'Meyer's Dwarf' (Greek Fir) · A. chensiensis (Shensi Fir) · A. chensiensis chensiensis (Shensi Fir) · A. chensiensis salouenensis (Salween Fir) · A. cilicica (Cilician Fir) · A. concolor (Balsam Fir) · A. concolor lowiana (California White Fir) · A. concolor var. concolor (White Fir) · A. concolor 'Candicans' (Colorado Fir) · A. concolor 'Gables Weeping' (Gable's Weeping Colorado Fir) · A. concolor 'Green Globe' (Colorado Fir) · A. concolor 'Rockford' (Colorado Fir) · A. delavayi (Delavay's Fir) · A. delavayi fansipanensis (Fansipan Fir) · A. delavayi motuoensis (Medoc Fir) · A. delavayi nukiangensis (Nukiang Fir) · A. delavayi var. delavayi (Delavay's Silver Fir) · A. delavayi var. motuoensis (Medoc Fir) · A. delavayi var. nukiangensis (Nukiang Fir) · A. densa (Sikkim Fir) · A. durangensis (Durango Fir) · A. fabri (Fabers Fir) · A. fabri fabri (Faber’s Fir) · A. fabri minensis (Minshan Fir) · A. fargesii (Farges' Fir) · A. fargesii var. sutchuensis (Farges´ Fir) · A. firma (Japanese Fir) · A. forrestii (Forrest's Fir) · A. forrestii var. georgei (George's Fir) · A. fraseri (Fraser Fir) · A. fraseri 'Franklin' (Fraser Fir) · A. fraseri 'Julian Potts' (Fraser Fir) · A. fraseri 'Klein' (Fraser Fir) · A. grandis (Giant Fir) · A. grandis var. grandis (Grand Fir) · A. grandis x concolor (Giant Fir) · A. guatemalensis (Guatemalan Fir) · A. guatemalensis var. guatemalensis (Guatemalan Fir) · A. hickelii (Hickel's Fir) · A. holophylla (Manchurian Fir) · A. homolepis (Nikko Fir) · A. homolepis var. homolepis (Nikko Fir) · A. kawakamii (Taiwan Fir) · A. koreana (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Aurea' (Golden Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Gelbbunt' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Goldener Traum' (Golden Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Horstmann's Silberlocke' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Piccolo' (Fir) · A. koreana 'Prostrate Beauty' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Silberperl' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Silber Mavers' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Silver Show' (Korean Fir) · A. koreana 'Starkers Dwarf' (Korean Fir) · A. lasiocarpa (Alpine Fir) · A. lasiocarpa arizonica var. arizonica (Cork Bark Fir) · A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Corkbark Fir) · A. lasiocarpa x homolepis (Balsam Fir) · A. lasiocarpa 'Arizona Compacta' (Cork-Bark Fir) · A. lasiocarpa 'Duflon' (Alpine Fir) · A. lasiocarpa 'Green Globe' (Alpine Fir) · A. lowiana (Sierra White Fir) · A. magnifica (California Red Fir) · A. magnifica 'Prostrata' (California Red Fir) · A. mariesii (Maries' Fir) · A. nebrodensis (Sicilian Fir) · A. nephrolepis (Manchurian Fir) · A. nordmanniana (Caucasian Fir) · A. nordmanniana equi-trojani (Kazdagi Fir) · A. nordmanniana nordmanniana (Bornmuellers Fir) · A. nordmanniana 'Golden Spreader' (Caucasian Fir) · A. nordmanniana 'Tortifolia' (Caucasian Fir) · A. numidica (Algerian Fir) · A. numidica de (Algerian Silver Fir) · A. phanerolepis (Fir) · A. pindrow (Pindrow Fir) · A. pinsapo (Spanish Fir) · A. pinsapo var. pinsapo (Spanish Fir) · A. pinsapo 'Aurea' (Golden Spanish Fir) · A. pinsapo 'Glauca' (Blue Spanish Fir) · A. procera (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Blau Hexe' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Blue Spire' (Fir) · A. procera 'Frijsenborg' (Noble Fir) · A. procera 'Glauca' (Noble Fir)
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- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Con-1202
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2891931
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:261448-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 629
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 506607
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 261447-1
- IUCN ID: 187991
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ABAL3
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