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Diplopoda

(Redirected from millipedes)


Diplopoda is a Class within the kingdom Animalia. English vernacular for Diplopoda is Millipede. More than 12,657 species and subspecies of Diplopoda have been described.

Diplopoda
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Diplopoda

Body

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File:Paranota comparison.png
Paranota of a Polydesmidan (left) and Platydesmidan millipede

The body is flattened or cylindrical, composed of numerous metemeric segments, each with an exoskeleton consisting of a single chitinous plate above, one at each side, and two or three on the underside. In many millipedes, these plates are fused to varying degrees, sometimes forming a single cylindrical ring. The plates are typically hard, being impregnated with calcium salts.[1] Because they lack a waxy cuticle, millipedes are susceptible to water loss and must spend most of their time in moist or humid environments.[2] The first segment behind the head is legless and known as a collum. The second to fourth body segments bear a single pair of legs each and are known as "haplosegments", from the Greek haplo, "single" (the three haplosegments are sometimes referred to as a "thorax"[3]). The remaining segments, from the fifth to the posterior, are properly known as diplosegments, or double segments. Each diplosegment bears two pairs of legs, rather than just one as in centipedes. This is because each diplosgment is formed by the fusion of two embryonic segments. In some millipedes the last few segments may be legless. The terms "segment" or "body ring" are often used interchangeably to refer to both haplo- and diplosegments. The final segment bears a telson, which consists of a legless preanal ring, pair of anal valves (closeable plates around the anus), and a scale below the anus.[4][1]

Millipedes in several orders have keel-like extensions of the body-wall known as paranota, which can vary widely in shape and size. Paranota may allow millipedes to wedge more securely into crevices, protect the legs, or make the millipede more difficult for predators to swallow.[5]

Vernacular Names

  • Arabic: دودة ألفية
  • Azerbaijani: İkiqoşaayaqlılar
  • Catalan, Valencian: Milpeus
  • Chinese: 馬陸
  • Czech: Mnohonožky
  • Danish: Tusindben
  • Dutch: Miljoenpoten
  • English: Millipede · millipedes
  • Esperanto: Milpieduloj
  • Finnish: Kaksoisjalkaiset
  • Georgian: მრავალფეხიანები
  • German: Doppelfüßer
  • Hebrew (modern): רב רגליים
  • Hindi: सहस्त्रपाद
  • Hungarian: Ikerszelvényesek
  • Icelandic: Þúsundfætlur
  • Ido: Miriapodo
  • Indonesian: Kaki seribu
  • Japanese: ヤスデ
  • Javanese: Luwing
  • Korean: 배각류
  • Latvian: Tūkstoškāji
  • Lithuanian: Dviporiakojai
  • Malay: Gonggok
  • Malayalam: തേരട്ട
  • Navajo, Navaho: Jááłánii (bikágí ntłʼizígíí)
  • Norwegian: Tusenbein
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: Tusenbein
  • Persian (Farsi): هزارپا
  • Polish: Dwuparce
  • Portuguese: Diplópode
  • Quechua: Iskaynintinchaki
  • Russian: Двупарноногие
  • Slovene: Dvojnonoge
  • Sundanese: Titinggi
  • Swedish: Dubbelfotingar
  • Telugu: సహస్రపాదులు
  • Thai: กิ้งกือ
  • Turkish: Kırkayak

Taxonomy

Higher Taxa

  • Class Diplopoda
  • </ul>

    Distribution


    Map showing distribution of observations of Diplopoda.

    End Notes

    References

    Selected References

    additional references

    Template:Chapter 7 in ISBN 978-1-87725793-3 Template:Zt3754.4.8

    • Mikhalijova, E.V.}}; ; Marusik, Y.M.}} 2 2006: Millipedes (Diplopoda) of the Kurile Islands. In: Takahashi, H.}} & & Ôhara, M.}} ( (eds.) Biodiversity and biogeography of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin, volume 2. Bulletin of the Hokkaido University Museum, (3): 115-127.
    • Shelley, R.M.}} 2 2003: A revised, annotated, family-level classification of the Diplopoda. Arthropoda selecta, 11(3): 187-207.
    • Shelley, R.M.}} 2 2007: Taxonomy of extant Diplopoda (millipeds) in the modern era: perspectives for future advancements and observations on the global diplopod community (Arthropoda: Diplopoda). Pp. 343-362 in: Zhang, Z.-Q.}} & & Shear, W.A.}} ( (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt
    • Shelley, R.M.}}; ; Sierwald, P.}}; ; Kiser, S.B.}}; ; Golovatch, S.I.}} 2 2000: Nomenclator generum et familiarum Diplopodorum II. A list of the genus and family-group names in the class Diplopoda from 1958 through 1999. Pensoft Publisher, Bulgaria. Pensoft Series Faunistica, 20.
    • Sierwald, P.}}; ; Bond, J.E.}} 2 2007: Current status of the myriapod class Diplopoda (millipedes): taxonomic diversity and phylogeny. Annual review of entomology, 52: 401-420.
    Template:Zt3835.4.5

    links

    Page Notes

    • URL: http://ZipcodeZoo.com/index.php/Diplopoda
    • Primary Sources: Global Biodiversity Information Facility · The Catalogue of Life, 3rd January 2011 · Wikipedia · Wikispecies · ZipcodeZoo.com.
    • Last revised: 2015-2-3. Last revision: ZZBot. 10173 bytes.

    Footnotes

    1. 1.0 1.1 Barnes, Robert D. (1982). "Invertebrate Zoology". Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 818–825. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. 
    2. Capinera, John L., ed. (2008). "Encyclopedia of Entomology". Springer. pp. 2935–2397. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.  |chapter= ignored (help)
    3. Wilson, Heather M.; Anderson, Lyall I. (2004). "Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland". Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2004)078<0169:MATOPM>2.0.CO;2. 
    4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named SierwaldBond2007
    5. Mesibov, Robert. "Paranota". External Anatomy of Polydesmida. Retrieved 30 October 2013.