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Zenaida macroura macroura

Wood Dove
Zenaida macroura macroura
Zenaida macroura macroura 34.jpg
Zenaida macroura macroura ('Wood Dove')
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclass: Gnathostomata
Class: Aves
Subclass: Neornithes
Infraclass: Aves
Superorder: Psittacimorphae
Order: Columbiformes
Suborder: Columbae
Family: Columbidae
Genus: Zenaida
Series: Amniota
Species: Z. macroura
Subspecies: macroura
Binomial name
Zenaida macroura macroura
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Zenaida macroura macroura is a subspecies within the kingdom Animalia, family Columbidae. English vernacular for Zenaida macroura macroura is Wood Dove.

Vernacular Names

  • Dutch: Treurduif
  • English: American Mourning Dove · Carolina Dove · Moaning Dove · Mourning Dove · Mourning Dove (Caribbean) · Turtle Dove · Wild Dove · Wood Dove
  • French: Tourterelle Triste
  • German: Carolinataube · Trauertaube
  • Italian: Tortora Lamentosa Americana
  • Japanese: ナゲキバト
  • Spanish: Paloma Huilota · Paloma Lúgubre


Size: The Mourning Dove measures 28 cm (10 in) from tip of bill to tip of tail. Color: Grayish-brown on the head and backside, and pinkish-beige on the breast and belly. Wing and tail feathers are gray. White tips on the outer tail feathers can be seen during flight. Dark spots are present on the wings, and there is one dark spot behind the eye. The bill is small, curved and black. The legs and feet are dull red.

Similar Species

The Mourning Dove might be confused with the Common Ground Dove, a smaller, stockier bird about 17 cm long (6.5 in) which is primarily a southern coastal species. The Common Ground Dove has similar coloring, but a short (often raised) tail and rusty wing feathers.


  • Zenaida macroura macroura


Predators include raptors (birds of prey), the Raccoon, cats, dogs, and snakes.


It is frequently encountered in open woodlands, grassland edges, and suburban areas, where it forages on the ground for seeds from grasses, weeds, and multiple-seeded flowers such as sunflowers. The Mourning Dove will also feed on agricultural grains where available, including wheat, corn, and millet.


Breeding season is long, lasting from late February to early October. Nesting habitat is usually woodland or grassland edge. Flimsy, shallow nests are built an average of 5 m (15 ft) above ground in many different types of trees and shrubs, but sometimes a nest will be built on the ground if no suitable trees or shrubs are available. The male delivers nesting material to the female, who builds the nest. He stands on her back and offers her sticks and twigs, which she incorporates into a bowl around herself. The female lays 2 white eggs, which both parents incubate for 14 days. Both parents regurgitate crop milk to the young birds (called squabs). After 5 days, seeds are added to their diet. The young squabs fledge after 15 days, but parental feedings continue for up to 12 days after fledging.


Name Status

Name status: accepted name.
Latest taxonomic scrutiny: 26-May-2005
Source: ITIS Global, Sep 2014
Some taxonomic info derived from IOC.[1]


North America Cuba, Isle of Pines, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Jamaica Breeding range: Breeding range: Breeding range: Breeding range: NA, MA widespread w British Columbia (Canada) to sc Mexico e USA, Bermuda, Bahama Is. Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica

  • Reported here: Angola, Australia:Victoria, Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Canada:Alberta, Canada:British Columbia, Canada:Manitoba, Canada:New Brunswick, Canada:Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada:Nunavut, Canada:Ontario, Canada:Saskatchewan, Chad, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, Mexico:Baja, Mexico:Chihuahua, Mexico:Coahuila, Mexico:Colima, Mexico:Durango, Mexico:Hidalgo, Mexico:Jalisco, Mexico:Morelos, Mexico:Nuevo Leon, Mexico:Oaxaca, Mexico:Puebla, Mexico:San Luis Potosi, Mexico:Sinaloa, Mexico:Sonora, Mexico:Tamaulipas, Mexico:Veracruz, Mexico:Zacatecas, Nicaragua, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, Turks and Caicos Islands, United Kingdom, United States.

Map showing distribution of observations of Zenaida macroura macroura.



To explore 52 photos of Zenaida macroura macroura, click here.


Date recorded: December 30, 1899. Citation: ©NatureSongs.com}
Call. Nest? Context? Background sounds: * Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)· Date recorded: May 04, 2013. Location: Brinton Brook Sanctuary, Croton, New York USA. Citation: Daniel Parker, XC132681. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/132681. ©Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0}


Heritage Status: G5

More Information


  • Catalog of Life Identifier: 3f61710bba9846964dfae86ed68d87ba
  • GBIF: TaxonID: 7060162 TaxonKey: 13889982
  • ITIS: 177128
  • Namebank ID: 3854369
  • SP2000 Accepted Name Code: ITS-177128
  • ZipcodeZoo CritterID: 271


  1. International Ornithologists’ Committee. IOC World Bird List 5.2 doi 10.14344/IOC.ML.5.2 link


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C., USA. 79.


  • Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.

Page Notes