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Nicotiana tabacum

Cultivated Tobacco
Nicotiana tabacum
Nicotiana attenuata 1.jpg
Nicotiana tabacum ('Cultivated Tobacco')
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subphylum: Euphyllophytina
Infraphylum: Radiatopses
Subclass: Magnoliidae
Superorder: Asteranae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Tribe: Nicotianeae
Genus: Nicotiana
Species: N. tabacum
Binomial name
Nicotiana tabacum

Nicotiana alba Mill.
Nicotiana alipes Steud.
Nicotiana attenuata Steud.
Nicotiana capensis Hort. ex Vill.
Nicotiana caudata Nutt.
Nicotiana chinensis Fischer ex Lehmann
Nicotiana crispula hort. ex Steud.
Nicotiana florida Salisb.
Nicotiana frutescens Hort. Amstel. ex Lehm.
Nicotiana fruticosa Moc. & Sesse ex Dun.
Nicotiana gigantea Hort. Dorpat. ex Lehm.
Nicotiana gracilipes Steud.
Nicotiana guatemalensis Hort. ex Vilm.
Nicotiana havanensis Hort. Matrit. ex Lehm.
Nicotiana lancifolia Willd. ex Lehm.
Nicotiana latissima Miller
Nicotiana lehmanni Agardh ex Dun.
Nicotiana lingua Steud.
Nicotiana loxensis Kunth
Nicotiana macrophylla Spreng.
Nicotiana marylandica Schuebl.
Nicotiana mexicana Schltdl.
Nicotiana pallescens Steud.
Nicotiana petiolata Agardh
Nicotiana pilosa Dun.
Nicotiana serotina Steud.
Nicotiana tabaca St. Lag.
Nicotiana turcica Haberl. ex Steud.
Nicotiana verdon Steud.
Nicotiana ybarrensis Kunth
Tabacum latissimum Bercht. & Opiz
Tabacum nicotianum Bercht. & Opiz
Tabacum ovatofolium Gilib.


Nicotiana tabacum
File:Tabak P9290021.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Nicotiana
Species: N. tabacum
Binomial name
Nicotiana tabacum

Template:tobacco Nicotiana tabacum, or cultivated tobacco, is an annually-grown herbaceous plant. It is found only in cultivation, where it is the most commonly grown of all plants in the Nicotiana genus, and its leaves are commercially grown in many countries to be processed into tobacco. It grows to heights between 1 to 2 metres. Research is ongoing into its ancestry among wild Nicotiana species, but it is believed to be a hybrid of Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, and possibly Nicotiana otophora.[1]

Did you know?

  • Widely cultivated throughout China [native to South America] [1]
  • Used for tobacco and as an insecticide, also medicinally for anaesthetic, inducing sweat, or vomiting. [2]
  • Widely cultivated throughout China [native to South America] [3]
  • Used for tobacco and as an insecticide, also medicinally for anaesthetic, inducing sweat, or vomiting. [4]

Vernacular Names

  • -: Tabaco; Tobacco · Tabak
  • Arabic: Dukhân
  • Azerbaijani: Tütün
  • Basque: Tabako
  • Bengali: Tamak
  • Burmese: Sac
  • Cassubian: Tobaka
  • Catalan, Valencian: Tabaquera
  • Czech: Tabák virginský
  • Danish: Almindelig Tobak · Tobak · Virginsk Tobak
  • Dutch: Gewone tabaksplant · Tabak
  • English: American Tobacco · Burley Tobac · Common tobacco · Cultivated Tobacco · Tobacco · Tōrori · Virginia tobacco · Virginian Tobacco
  • Estonian: Vääristubakas
  • Finnish: Virginiantupakka
  • French: Grand Tabac · nicotiane tabac · Tabac · Tabac Commun · Tabac De Virginie
  • German: Echter Tabak · Langblättriger · Tabak · Virginischer Tabak
  • Greek: Καπνός
  • Gujarati: Tabacu · તમાકુ
  • Haitian: Tabak
  • Haitian, Haitian Creole: Tabak
  • Hindi: Bujjerbhang · Tambaakuu
  • Italian: Albero Del Tabacco · Erba Della Regina · Nicoziana · Tabacco · Tabacco Virginia
  • Japanese: Nikochiana Tabakamu · Tabako · タバコ
  • Kinyarwanda: Igikamba (itabi)
  • Korean: 재배담배
  • Kurdish: Titûn
  • Lithuanian: Paprastasis tabakas
  • Malayalam: Pokala · പുകയില (സസ്യം)
  • Marathi: Tamaku
  • Nahuatl: Piciyetl
  • Norwegian: Tobakksplante · Virginiatobakk
  • Persian: Beharebhang
  • Polish: Tyton Szlachetny
  • Portuguese: fumo · Tabaco
  • Quechua: Sayri
  • Romanian: Tutun
  • Russian: Tabak · Tabaka · Табак обыкновенный
  • Sanskrit: Dhumrapatrika
  • Sinhalese: Dhumkola
  • Spanish: Tabaco · Tabaco Negro
  • Swedish: Virginiatobak
  • Tamil: Pugaiyilay
  • Telugu: Dhumrapatramu
  • Thai: ยาสูบ · ยาสูบ (พืช)
  • Tonga (Tonga Islands): Tapaka
  • Vietnamese: Thuốc lá (thực vật)


Herbs viscid, annual or short-lived perennial, 0.7-2 m tall, glandular hairy overall. Leaves decurrent, winging stems; leaf blade ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, 30(-70) × 8-15(-30) cm, membranous, glandular hairy, base narrowed, nearly half clasping, apex acuminate. Inflorescences many-flowered, much-branched panicles. Pedicel 0.5-2 cm. Calyx tubular or tubular-campanulate, 2-2.5 cm; lobes deltate, acuminate, unequal. Corolla yellowish at base, yellowish, greenish, red, or pink distally, funnelform, 3.5-5 cm; limb 1-1.5 cm in diam., with acute unequal lobes. Stamens unequal, sometimes partly exserted. Capsules ellipsoid or ovoid. Seeds brown, rounded, ca. 0.5 mm in diam. Fl. summer, fr. autumn. <a href="http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200020550" target="_blank">[source]</a>


  • Color Flower Color: chartreuse;.
  • Flowers Bloom Period: june;.
  • Foliage Duration: annual;.
  • Habit Habit: forb/herb.
  • Propagation Culture: space 18-24" apart;.
  • Size Size: 36-48" tall.
  • Soil Minimum pH: 61; Maximum pH: 78;.
  • Sun Sun Exposure: full sun.
  • Miscellaneous Size: 36-48" tall.

Similar Species


Habitat and Ecology


N. tabacum is sensitive to temperature, air, ground humidity and the type of land. Temperatures of 20–30 °C (68–86 °F) are best for adequate growth; an atmospheric humidity of 80 to 85% and soil without a high level of nitrogen are also optimal.


Name Status

Name status: accepted name.
Latest taxonomic scrutiny: Hassler M.
Source: World Plants, Nov 2014


  • Native: Origin South America, Widely Cultivated.

Reported here: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antarctica, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brazil:Bahia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Canada:British Columbia, Canada:Ontario, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, China:Guangdong, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Indonesia:Bali, Indonesia:Irian Jaya, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Laos, Liberia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Mexico:Hidalgo, Mexico:Jalisco, Mexico:Michoacan, Mexico:Morelos, Mexico:Oaxaca, Mexico:Puebla, Mexico:Sinaloa, Mexico:Sonora, Mexico:Tamaulipas, Mexico:Veracruz, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlan ds, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Island, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint Helena, Samoa, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

  • US Nativity:


Map showing distribution of observations of Nicotiana tabacum.



To explore 54 photos of Nicotiana tabacum, click here.


20 201420 2014. - Nicotiana tabacum flowers. Recordist: Oleg Tarabanov Terms of use.
- (2014) Nicotiana tabacum in my garden in the Tver region of Russia. Recordist: Oleg Tarabanov Terms of use.
13 2014 Nicotiana tabacum.Smoking tobacco Virginia in my garden in the Tver region of Russia July 13, 2014. Recordist: Oleg Tarabanov Terms of use.


In their great first voyage to the New World, Christopher Columbus and his expedition were introduced to a plant whose smoke was called tobacco by the natives of Hispaniola. In 1560, Jean Nicot de Villemain brought tobacco seeds and leaves as a "wonder drug" to the French court. In 1586 the botanist Jaques Dalechamps gave the plant the name of Herba nicotiana, which was also adopted by Linné. It was considered a decorative plant at first, then a panacea, before it became a common snuff and tobacco plant. Tobacco arrived in Africa at the beginning of the 17th century. The leaf extract was a popular pest control method up to the beginning of the 20th century. In 1851, the Belgian chemist Jean Stas documented the use of tobacco extract as a murder poison. The Belgian count Hippolyte Visart de Bocarmé had poisoned his brother-in-law with tobacco leaf extract in order to acquire some urgently needed money. This was the first exact proof of alkaloids in forensic medicine.[2]

Heritage Status: GNR

Geographical distribution

N. tabacum is a native of tropical and subtropical America but it is now commercially cultivated worldwide. Other varieties are cultivated as ornamental plants or grow as a weed.

Botanical description

Nicotiana tabacum Linné is a robust annual little branched herb up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) high with large green leaves and long trumpet-shaped white-pinkish flowers. All parts are sticky, covered with short viscid-glandular hairs, which exude a yellow secretion containing nicotine.


Varied in size, the lower leaves are the largest at up to 60 cm (24 in) long, shortly stalked or unstalked, oblonged-elliptic, shortly acuminate at the apex, decurrent at the base, the following leaves decrease in size, the upper one sessile and smallest, oblong- lanceolate or elliptic.


In terminal, many flowered inflorescences, the tube 5–6 cm (2.0–2.4 in) long, 5 mm (0.20 in) in diameter, expanded in the lower third (calyx) and upper third (throat), lobes broadly triangular, white-pinkish with pale violet or carmine colored tips tube yellowish white; calyx with five narrowly triangular lobes which are 1.5–2 cm (0.59–0.79 in) long. A capsular ovoid or ellipsoid, surrounded by the persistent calyx and with a short apical beak, about 2 cm (0.79 in) long. Seeds are very numerous, very small, ovoid or kidney shaped, brown. and normally this is use in Gold leaf

Part used

Every part of the plant except the seed contains nicotine, but the concentration is related to different factors such as species, type of land, culture and weather conditions. The concentration of nicotine increases with the age of the plant. Tobacco leaves contain 2 to 8% nicotine combined as malate or citrate. The distribution of the nicotine in the mature plant is widely variable: 64% of the total nicotine exists in the leaves, 18% in the stem, 13% in the root, and 5% in the flowers.[citation needed]


Ethnomedicinal uses

Template:refimprove-section The regions that have histories of use of the plant include:[citation needed]

  • Brazil: Leaves are heated and the juice is squeezed out, mixed with ash from bark of Theobroma subircanum or other Theobroma species to make an intoxicating snuff. The leaf juice is taken orally to induce vomiting and narcosis.
  • Colombia: Fresh leaf is used as poultice over boils and infected wounds; the leaves are crushed with oil from palms and used as hair treatment to prevent baldness.
  • Cuba: Extract of the leaf is taken orally to treat dysmenorrhea.
  • East Africa: Dried leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and Securinega virosa are mixed into a paste and used externally to destroy worms in sores.
  • Ecuador: Leaf juice is used for indisposition, chills and snake bites and to treat pulmonary ailments.
  • Fiji: Fresh root is taken orally for asthma and indigestion; fresh root is applied ophthalmically as drops for bloodshot eyes and other problems; seed is taken orally for rheumatism and to treat hoarsness.
  • Guatemala: Leaves are applied externally by adults for myasis, headache and wounds; hot water extract of the dried leaf is applied externally for ring worms, fungal diseases of the skin, wounds, ulcers, bruises, sores, mouth lesions, stomatitis and mucosa; leaf is orally taken for kidney diseases.
  • Haiti: Decoction of dried leaf is taken orally for bronchitis and pneumonia.
  • Iran: Infusion of the dried leaf is applied externally as an insect repellent; ointments made from crushed leaves are used for baldness, dermatitis and infectious ulceration and as a pediculicide.
  • Mexico (south-eastern): Among the ancient Maya, Nicotiana was considered a sacred plant, closely associated with deities of earth and sky, and used for both visionary and therapeutic ends. The contemporary Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Highland Chiapas (Mexico) are bearers of this ethnobotanical inheritance, preserving a rich and varied tradition of Nicotiana use and folklore. The entire tobacco plant is viewed as a primordial medicine and a powerful botanical ‘‘helper’’ or ‘‘protector.’’ Depending on the condition to be treated, whole Nicotiana leaves used are used alone or in combination with other herbs in the preparation of various medicinal plasters and teas. In its most common form, fresh or ‘‘green’’ leaves are ground with slaked lime to produce an intoxicating oral snuff that serves as both a protective and therapeutic


  • United States: Extract of N. tabacum is taken orally to treat tiredness, ward off diseases, and quiet fear.
  • Tanzania: Leaves of Nicotiana tabacum are placed in the vagina to stimulate labor.
  • Canada: Leaves are extracted and made into an eye serum to ward off visions of supernatural spirits.

Nutritional value

A protein of the White–Brown Complex subfamily[4] can be extracted from the leaves. It is an odourless, tasteless white powder and can be added to cereal grains, vegetables, soft drinks and other foods. It can be whipped like egg whites, liquefied or gelled and can take on the flavour and texture of a variety of foods. It is 99.5% protein, contains no salt, fat or cholesterol. It is currently being testedTemplate:by whom as a low calorie substitute for mayonnaise and whipped cream.[citation needed]

Other uses

All parts of the plant contain nicotine, which can be extracted and used as an insecticide. The dried leaves can also be used; they remain effective for 6 months after drying. The juice of the leaves can be rubbed on the body as an insect repellent. The leaves can be dried and chewed as an intoxicant. The dried leaves are also used as snuff or are smoked. This is the main species that is used to make cigarettes, cigars, and other smokable tobacco preparations. A drying oil is obtained from the seed.

Curing and aging

After tobacco is harvested, it is cured (dried), and then aged to improve its flavor. There are four common methods of curing tobacco: air curing, fire curing, flue curing, and sun curing. The curing method used depends on the type of tobacco and its intended use. Air-cured tobacco is sheltered from wind and sun in a well-ventilated barn, where it air dries for six to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, sweet flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley tobaccos are air cured. In fire curing, smoke from a low-burning fire on the barn floor permeates the leaves. This gives the leaves a distinctive smoky aroma and flavor. Fire curing takes three to ten weeks and produces a tobacco low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire cured. Flue-cured tobacco is kept in an enclosed barn heated by flues (pipes) of hot air, but the tobacco is not directly exposed to smoke. This method produces cigarette tobacco that is high in sugar and has medium to high levels of nicotine. It is the fastest method of curing, requiring about a week. Virginia tobacco that has been flue cured is also called bright tobacco, because flue curing turns its leaves gold, orange, or yellow. Sun-cured tobacco dries uncovered in the sun. This method is used in Greece, Turkey, and other Mediterranean countries to produce oriental tobacco. Sun-cured tobacco is low in sugar and nicotine and is used in cigarettes. Once the tobacco is cured, workers tie it into small bundles of about 20 leaves, called hands, or use a machine to make large blocks, called bales. The hands or bales are carefully aged for one to three years to improve flavor and reduce bitterness.

More Information


  • Catalog of Life Identifier: 77744d364ae1427ae5743c9d6bbd45f2
  • GBIF: TaxonID: 2928774 TaxonKey: 13549108
  • Heritage Identifier: PDSOL0M0D0
  • ITIS: 30568
  • Namebank ID: 2653643
  • SP2000 Accepted Name Code: ITS-30568
  • USDA Symbol: NITA
  • ZipcodeZoo CritterID: 9363


  1. Ren, Nan; Timko, Michael P. (2001). "AFLP analysis of genetic polymorphism and evolutionary relationships among cultivated and wild Nicotiana species". Genome 44 (4): 559–71. PMID [//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/115 50889 115 50889] Check |pmid= value (help). doi:10.1139/gen-44-4-559. 
  2. Wennig, Robert (2009). "Back to the roots of modern analytical toxicology: Jean Servais Stas and the Bocarmé murder case". Drug Testing and Analysis 1 (4): 153–5. PMID 20355192. doi:10.1002/dta.32. 
  3. Groark, Kevin P. (2010). "The Angel in the Gourd: Ritual, Therapeutic, and Protective Uses of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of Chiapas, Mexico". Journal of Ethnobiology 30 (1): 5–30. doi:10.2993/0278-0771-30.1.5. 
  4. Otsu, C. T.; Dasilva, I; De Molfetta, JB; Da Silva, LR; De Almeida-Engler, J; Engler, G; Torraca, PC; Goldman, GH; Goldman, MH (2004). "NtWBC1, an ABC transporter gene specifically expressed in tobacco reproductive organs". Journal of Experimental Botany 55 (403): 1643–54. PMID 15258165. doi:10.1093/jxb/erh195. 


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Further Reading

  • Medicinal Plants of the world, By Ivan A. Ross
  • Poisonous plants, Dr Julia Higa de Landoni Seccion Toxicologia
  • Hospital de Clinicas "José de San Martin" Cordoba 2351, 1120 Capital, Argentina
  • African Ethnobotany: Poisons and Drugs: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology by Hans Dieter Neuwinger
  • Tobacco BY-2 cells - Cell suspension line made of N. tabacum cultivar, used in plant science research.

External Links


  • Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.

Page Notes

Bassin parisien] · Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format · GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Mà¡laga: MGC-Cormà³fitos · Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database · Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane · I[Biodiversidad de Costa Rica (accessed through GBIF data portal nstituto Nacional de Biodiversidad] · , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica · International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), EURISCO · Jyvà¤skylठUniversity Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum · L[IPK Ge nebank (accessed through GBIF data portal eibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research] · , IPK Genebank · Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden · National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea · Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo · [454] · T[Herbarium of Oskarshamn (OHN) (accessed through GBIF data portal he Swedish Museum of Natural History] · , Herbarium of Oskarshamn · [455] · UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database · USDA PLANTS, [h ttp://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/1066 USDA PLANTS Database] · inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn ·