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Cardinalis cardinalis

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Northern Cardinal
Cardinalis cardinalis
File:Female in Florida, US
Male in Ohio, US
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclass: Gnathostomata
Class: Aves
Subclass: Neornithes
Infraclass: Aves
Superorder: Passerimorphae
Order: Passeriformes
Suborder: Passeres
Superfamily: Passeroidea
Family: Cardinalidae
Tribe: Cardinalini
Genus: Cardinalis
Series: Amniota
Species: C. cardinalis
Binomial name
Cardinalis cardinalis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
File:Northern Cardinal-rangemap.gif
Range of C. cardinalis

The northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) is a North American bird in the genus Cardinalis; it is also known colloquially as the redbird or common cardinal. It can be found in southern Canada, through the eastern United States from Maine to Texas and south through Mexico. It is found in woodlands, gardens, shrublands, and swamps. The northern cardinal is a mid-sized songbird with a body length of 21 cm (8.3 in). It has a distinctive crest on the head and a mask on the face which is black in the male and gray in the female. The male is a vibrant red, while the female is a dull red-brown shade. The northern cardinal is mainly granivorous, but also feeds on insects and fruit. The male behaves territorially, marking out his territory with song. During courtship, the male feeds seed to the female beak-to-beak. A clutch of three to four eggs is laid, and two to four clutches are produced each year. It was once prized as a pet, but its sale as a cage bird is now banned in the United States by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918.

The Cardinal has benefitted from human impacts on the environment. Birdfeeders have helped it expand its range northward in the last hundred years, as has introduction to California, Bermuda, and Hawaii. Human encroachment on forests has increased the edge habitat that the Cardinal likes. And warming has resulted in less snow cover, and so more opportunity to ground feed.

Did you know?

  • The "redbird" is a popular visitor to backyards and is usually the last songbird bird in the evening to eat at the birdfeeders.
  • The "redbird" is a popular visitor to backyards and is usually the last songbird bird in the evening to eat at the birdfeeders.

Vernacular Names

  • Bengali, Bangla: নর্দার্ন কার্ডিনাল
  • Catalan, Valencian: Cardenal vermell
  • Chinese: 北美紅雀
  • Czech: Kardin · Kardinál červený
  • Dutch: Kardinaal · Rode Kardinaal
  • English: Arizona cardinal · Black-capped Thrush · Cardinal · cardinal bird · Cardinal Grosbeak · cardinal redbird · Cardinalbird · Common cardinal · Crested Redbird · eastern cardinal · Florida cardinal · gray-tailed cardinal · Kentucky cardinal · Louisiana · Northern Cardinal · Northern Cardinal (Common) · Red-Bird · Redbird · San Lucas cardinal · Santa Gertrudis cardinal · Top-knot Redbird · Virginia cardinal · Virginia Nightingale · Virginia redbird
  • Estonian: Kardinal
  • Finnish: Punakardinaali
  • French: Cardinal De Virginie · cardinal rouge
  • Georgian: კარდინალი (ფრინველი)
  • German: Roter Kardinal · Rotkardinal
  • Hebrew (modern): קרדינל צפוני
  • Hungarian: Kardinálispinty
  • Italian: Cardinale Rosso
  • Japanese: Shoujoukoukanchou · ショウジョウコウカンチョウ
  • Kazakh: Қызыл кардинал
  • Latin: Cardinalis cardinalis
  • Malayalam: നോർത്തേൺ കാർഡിനൽ
  • Mayan languages: chac dzidzib
  • Polish: Kardynal Szkarlatny · Kardynał szkarłatny
  • Russian: Кардинал · Красный кардинал
  • Slovak: Kardin · kardinál červený
  • Spanish: Cardenal Com · Cardenal Norte · Cardenal Norteño · Cardenal rojo
  • Spanish (Mexico): Cardenal Com
  • Spanish, Castilian: Cardenal rojo
  • Swedish: Röd kardinal
  • Turkish: Bayağı kardinal kuşu

Identification

The northern cardinal is a mid-sized songbird with a body length of 20–23.5 cm (7.9–9.3 in) and a wingspan of 25–31 cm (9.8–12.2 in). The adult weighs from 33.6–65 g (1.19–2.29 oz), with an average 44.8 g (1.58 oz).[2] The male averages slightly larger than the female.Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page). Young birds, both male and female, show coloring similar to th e adult female until the fall, when they molt and grow adult feathers.[3] They are brown above and red-brown below, with brick-colored crest, forehead, wings, and tail.[4] The legs and feet are a dark pink-brown. The iris of the eye is brown.[4] The plumage color of the males is produced from carotenoid pigments in the diet.[5] Coloration is produced from both red pigments and yellow carotenoid pigments.[6] Northern cardinal males possess the ability to metabolize carotenoid pigments to create plumage pigmentation of a color different from the ingested pigment. When fed only yellow pigments, males become a pale red color, rather than a yellow.[6] However, there are rare "yellow morph" cardinals, where all feathers (except for black face mask) and beak are a moderate yellow color.

The crest is distinctive on this species, along with the large conical bill.

Adult Female:

Head: buffy golden brown Crest: olive with red tip Face: Lores: dusky Body: Underparts: buffy golden brown Upperparts: buff-brown Tail: olive with red wash.

Adult Male:

Head: Crest: red Face: Eye Color: black mask surrounds black eyes Bill: reddish Shape: conical.

Similar Species

There are 19 subspecies:[7]

  • C. c. cardinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • C. c. affinis Nelson, 1899
  • C. c. canicaudus Chapman, 1891
  • C. c. carneus (Lesson, 1842)
  • C. c. clintoni (Banks, 1963)
  • C. c. coccineus Ridgway, 1873
  • C. c. flammiger J.L. Peters, 1913
  • C. c. floridanus Ridgway, 1896
  • C. c. igneus S.F. Baird, 1860
  • C. c. littoralis Nelson, 1897
  • C. c. magnirostris Bangs, 1903
  • C. c. mariae Nelson, 1898
  • C. c. phillipsi Parkes, 1997
  • C. c. saturatus Ridgway, 1885
  • C. c. seftoni (Huey, 1940)
  • C. c. sinaloensis Nelson, 1899
  • C. c. superbus Ridgway, 1885
  • C. c. townsendi (van Rossem, 1932)
  • C. c. yucatanicus Ridgway, 1887

Similar speciesRaces Cardinals are easily distinguished from nearly all birds in their range by the color of their plumage, crest, and conical bills. The exception is <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/c/cardinalis_sinuatus/">Pyrrhuloxia</a>, found in the southwest US and Mexico. Pyrrhuloxia has a shorter bill, and decurved upper mandible. There are 18 subspecies of cardinals at this writing. Subspecies:

Color

Head: buffy golden brown Tail: olive with red wash Wings: olive with red wash Overall Color: red

Cardinals are sexually dichromatic: the male is red with a black face, while the female has grayish-tan upperparts, and buffy underparts. Both sexes have red bills. Juvenile cardinals look much like their moms, but have gray to black bills.

Details

  • Bill: Shape: conical Upper Mandible: reddish Lower Mandible: reddish
  • Body: Upper Parts: buff-brown Lower Belly: red Upper Belly: red Breast: red Chest: red Flanks: red Sides: red
  • Face: Lores: dusky Cheeks: red Eye Color: black mask surrounds black eyes Forehead: red Malar: red Supraloral: red
  • Head: Crown: buffy golden brown Ear Coverts: buffy golden brown Crest: olive with red tip
  • Neck: Foreneck: red Hindneck: red Nape: red Sides: red Throat: red
  • Wings: Forewings: olive with red wash Greater Coverts: olive with red wash Primaries: olive with red wash Primary Coverts: olive with red wash Scapulars: olive with red wash Secondaries: olive with red wash Secondary Coverts: olive with red wash Shoulders: olive with red wash Tertials: olive with red wash Upper Scapulars: olive with red wash Upperwing Coverts: olive with red wash
  • Tail: Undertail Coverts: olive with red wash Uppertail Coverts: olive with red wash

Size/Age/Growth

About 7.5 to 9.25 inches long, with a wingspan of 10 to 12 inches. Adults weigh about 1.6 ounces. On occasion, Cardinals may live 13-15 years in the wild, but only about 60% of Cardinals survive from one year to the next.

Length: 7.5—9.25 inches. Wingspan: 10—12 inches. Weight: 1.6 ounces.

Behavior

Compared with many other songbirds, Cardinals are solitary, showing no obvious play, cooperative foraging, cooperative breeding, or group mobbing of predators.

Both males and females may attack their reflection in mirrors and windows. These attacks often originate from a branch with a view of the window, and involve crashing into the window. The short flight distance prevents much speed from developing, but the attacker is sometimes injured or dies.

The Cardinal rises early, and goes to bed late. It may be the last bird you see at your feeder in the evening.

Diet

File:Female Cardinal Eating Katydid, Missouri Ozarks.JPG
Female cardinal eating a katydid, Missouri Ozarks
File:Male Cardinal at Feeder.jpg
Male cardinal at feeder

The diet of the northern cardinal consists mainly (up to 90%) of weed seeds, grains, and fruits. It is a ground feeder and finds food while hopping on the ground through trees or shrubbery. It eats beetles, cicadas, grasshoppers, snails, wild fruit and berries, corn (maize) and oats, sunflower seeds, the blossoms and bark of elm trees, and drinks maple sap from holes made by sapsuckers, an example of commensalism.[8] During the summer months, it shows preference for seeds that are easily husked, but is less selective during winter, when food is scarce. Northern cardinals will also consume insects and feed their young almost exclusively on insects.[9]

The diet of the Northern Cardinal includes insects, seeds, and fruits. Most of the food is picked off the ground or vegetation. In early spring, it forages for seed on the ground; as the canopy develops, it will be found eating buds and insect larvae on trees and shrubs; in the fall, it will search for fruits and seeds from the ground and on plants. The strong, conical bill is adapted for crushing the hulls of seeds. Vegetation (grains, wild fruit, and seeds) comprises about 70% of its diet in summer, nearly 90% in winter, supplemented with larval and adult insects. At the bird feeder, Cardinals prefer black oil sunflower to all other sunflower seed, and preferred sunflower to all other seed types. Most likely seen at bird feeders near dawn and dusk.

Reproduction

File:DSCF1077.JPG
Newly hatched
File:DSCF1083.JPG
At one week of age

Pairs mate for life, and stay together year-round. Mated pairs sometimes sing together before nesting. During courtship they may also participate in a bonding behavior where the male collects food and brings it to the female, feeding her beak-to-beak.[10] If the mating is successful, this mate-feeding may continue throughout the period of incubation. Males sometimes bring nest material to the female, who does most of the building. She crushes twigs with her beak until they are pliable, then turns in the nest to bend the twigs around her body and push them into a cup shape with her feet. The cup has four layers: coarse twigs (and sometimes bits of trash) covered in a leafy mat, then lined with grapevine bark and finally grasses, stems, rootlets, and pine needles. The nest typically takes three to nine days to build; the finished product is 5.1–7.6 cm (2.0–3.0 in) tall, 10.1 cm (4.0 in) across, with an inner diameter of about 7.6 cm (3.0 in). Cardinals do not usually use their nests more than once. The female builds a cup nest in a well-concealed spot in dense shrub or a low tree 1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft) off the ground. The nest is made of thin twigs, bark strips, and grasses, lined with grasses or other plant fibers.[11] Eggs are laid one to six days following the completion of the nest. The eggs are white, with a tint of green, blue or brown, and are marked with lavender, gray, or brown blotches which are thicker around the larger end.[5] The shell is smooth and slightly glossy.[11] Three or four eggs are laid in each clutch. Eggs measure approximately 26 mm × 19 mm (1.02 in × 0.75 in) in size.[5] The female generally incubates the eggs, though, rarely, the male will incubate for brief periods of time. Incubation takes 12 to 13 days.[11] Young fledge 10 to 11 days after hatching. Two to three, and even four, broods are raised each year.[11] The male cares for and feeds each brood as the female incubates the next clutch of eggs.[8] The oldest wild cardinal banded by researchers lived at least 15 years and 9 months, although 28.5 years was achieved by a captive bird.[12] Annual survival rates for adult northern cardinals have been estimated at 60 to 65%;[13] however, as with other passerine birds, the high mortality of juveniles means that the average lifespan is only about a year.

The breeding season begins in late March, peaks in May, and extends until early August. The breeding habitat preferred by this species includes shrubby areas, thickets, or areas with a very dense understory. The nest is usually in a shrub 0.3-4.5 m (1-15 feet) above the ground. The nest is cup-shaped and constructed from plant stems, twigs, grass, bark strips, and other plant material. The female lays 2-5 (usually 3-4) eggs in March or April that she incubates for 11-13 days. The young are altricial and fledge 9-10 days after hatching. The male may care for the young while the female starts the next nest. The young are dependent on adults for 2-4 weeks after they leave the nest.

  • Breeding Habitat: Successional-scrub
  • Nest Location: Ground-low nesting
  • Nest Type: Open-cup
  • Clutch Size: 2-5
  • Length of Incubation: 12-13 days
  • Days to Fledge: 9-10
  • Number of Broods: 2, 3, occasionally 4  

After nest failure or successful fledging, females will start a new nest, resting for 2-3 weeks before beginning it. The cycle continues until late August (or sometimes later) or until drought reduces the population of insects available to feed the young. Preferred nest locations are tangles of vines or small branches, usually in small trees or shrubs.

Cardinals are monogamous, but DNA studies reveal that in up to 35% of the young, there is "extra-pair paternity". Both care for the nestlings, with the male contributing more food.

Both divorce and death will trigger pairing with an available unmated partner, and this will occur during breeding season through October.

Nest construction can take two or three weeks for the first nest, with construction of subsequent nests being faster.

Eggs and nestlings are regular victims of predation, and only a third of nests may produce fledglings.

Fledglings can fly fairly well at 3 days after fledging, and strongly at 8 days after. By 25-56 days after fledging, the young are independent.

Males and females begin breeding in their first spring after fledging.

Migration

Nonmigratory. Throughout their range, Cardinals are year-round residents. Around the time of the fall molt, most Cardinals leave their territories, and join with neighbors that form a "rolling flock", in which the lead birds settle on the ground while the bulk of the flock passes over them, then join the flock at the rear. As this flock rolls along, it acquires new members from the areas visited, and some drop out after a mile or less of travel.

Flight

Flight Pattern: Undulating flap then coast on folded wings Wing Beat Rate: fast

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat

1.4. Forest - Temperate, 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland, 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry, 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist, 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls), 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands, 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas, 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest.[14]

Ecology: ===Song=== Template:listen The northern cardinal is a territorial song bird. The male sings in a loud, clear whistle from the top of a tree or another high location to defend his territory. He will chase off other males entering his territory. He may mistake his image on various reflective surfaces as an invading male, and will fight his reflection relentlessly. The northern cardinal learns its songs, and as a result the songs vary regionally. Mated pairs often travel together.[15]

File:Northern Cardinal Pair-27527.jpg
The male often feeds the female as part of their courtship behavior.

Both sexes sing clear, whistled song patterns, which are repeated several times, then varied. Some common phrases are described as cheeeer-a-dote, cheeer-a-dote-dote-dote, purdy, purdy, purdy...whoit, whoit, whoit, whoit, what-cheer, what-cheer... wheet, wheet, wheet, wheet[10] and cheer, cheer, cheer, what, what, what, what[3] The northern cardinal has a distinctive alarm call, a short metallic chip sound. This call often is given when predators approach the nest, in order to give warning to the female and nestlings.[4] In some cases it will also utter a series of chipping notes. The frequency and volume of these notes increases as the threat becomes greater.[4] This chipping noise is also used by a cardinal pair to locate each other, especially during dusk hours when visibility wanes.

Parasites

Up to 80% of nests may be parasitized with one or two eggs from <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/M/Molothrus_ater/">Brown-Headed Cowbirds</a> and <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/M/Molothrus_aeneus/">Bronzed Cowbirds</a>. Such eggs face the same high risks that the Cardinal eggs face. Once hatched, the cowbird nestlings have no evident impact on the Cardinal nestlings.

Diseases are common. In one study, nearly 90% of birds examined had been infected with encephalitis, as indicated by antibodies present. Sometimes lethal salmonellosis outbreaks come from feces at bird feeders. Internal protozoans, internal worms, and lice, flies, mites, and ticks are also problems.

Survival

Predators

Eggs are eaten by <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/L/Lampropeltis_doliata/">milk snakes</a>, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/c/coluber_constrictor/">Black Racers</a>, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/c/cyanocitta_cristata/">Blue Jays</a>, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/s/sciurus_niger/">Fox Squirrels</a>, Red Squirrels, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/t/tamias_striatus/">Eastern Chipmunks</a>, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/t/troglodytes_aedon/">House wrens</a>, and <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/M/Molothrus_ater/">Brown-Headed Cowbirds.</a> Nestlings and newly fledged Cardinals are taken by <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/C/Coluber_constrictor/">Black Racers</a>, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/E/Elaphe_obsoleta/">Pilot Black Snakes</a>, and Eastern Chipmunks. Adult cardinals are sometimes eaten by domestic cats, dogs, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/A/Accipiter_cooperii/">Cooper's Hawks</a>, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/l/lanius_ludovicianus/">Loggerhead</a> and <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/l/lanius_excubitor/">Northern Shrikes</a>, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/a/asio_otus/">Long-eared Owls</a>, <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/O/Otus_asio/">Eastern Screech-Owls</a>, and <a href="http://zipcodezoo.com/animals/s/sciurus_carolinensis/">Eastern Gray Squirrels</a>.

Northern cardinals are preyed upon by a wide variety of predators native to North America, including falcons, all Accipiter hawks, shrikes, and several owls, including long-eared owls, and eastern screech owls. Predators of chicks and eggs include milk snakes, coluber constrictors, blue jays, eastern gray squirrels, fox squirrels, eastern chipmunks,[9] and domestic cats.

Taxonomy

The northern cardinal is one of three birds in the genus Cardinalis and is included in the family Cardinalidae, which is made up of passerine birds found in North and South America. The northern cardinal was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae.[16] It was initially included in the genus Loxia, which now contains only crossbills. In 1838, it was placed in the genus Cardinalis and given the scientific name Cardinalis virginianus, which means "Virginia cardinal". In 1918, the scientific name was changed to Richmondena cardinalis to honor Charles Wallace Richmond, an American ornithologist.[17] In 1983, the scientific name was changed again to Cardinalis cardinalis and the common name was changed to "northern cardinal", to avoid confusion with the seven other species also termed cardinals.[4] The common name, as well as the scientific name, of the northern cardinal refers to the cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church, who wear distinctive red robes and caps.[18][19] The term "northern" in the common name refers to its range, as it is the northernmost cardinal species.[18]

Name Status

Name status: accepted name.
Latest taxonomic scrutiny: Peterson A.P.
Source: ITIS Global, Sep 2014
Some taxonomic info derived from IOC.[20]

Distribution

Northern cardinals are numerous across the eastern United States from Maine to Texas and in Canada in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Its range extends west to the U.S.–Mexico border and south through Mexico to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, northern Guatemala, and northern Belize. An allopatric population is found on the Pacific slope of Mexico from Jalisco to Oaxaca; note that this population is not shown on the range map. The species was introduced to Bermuda in 1700. It has also been introduced in Hawaii and southern California. Its natural habitat is woodlands, gardens, shrublands, and swamps.[1]

  • Native: Belize, Bermuda, Canada, Guatemala, Mexico, United States
  • Vagrant: Cayman Islands Present - origin uncertain: Honduras[21] Breeding range: NA, MA e, s, sw USA, Mexico
  • Reported here: Antarctica, Antilles, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bulgaria, Canada:Alberta, Canada:Manitoba, Canada:New Brunswick, Canada:Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada:Nova Scotia, Canada:Ontario, Canada:Prince Edward Island, Canada:Saskatchewan, Cayman Islands, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Mexico:Aguascalientes, Mexico:Baja, Mexico:Chihuahua, Mexico:Coahuila, Mexico:Colima, Mexico:Durango, Mexico:Hidalgo, Mexico:Jalisco, Mexico:Morelos, Mexico:Oaxaca, Mexico:Puebla, Mexico:Sinaloa, Mexico:Sonora, Mexico:Tamaulipas, Mexico:Veracruz, Mexico:Yucatán, Mexico:Zacatecas, Tajikistan, United Kingdom, United States.
  • Reported here: North America; Oceania
  • Population Trend: Stable


Map showing distribution of observations of Cardinalis cardinalis.

Media

Images

To explore 77 photos of Cardinalis cardinalis, click here.

Videos

2014: Part 30 Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) Documentary 1080P Recordist: Bhd812 Terms of use.

Sounds

787.png
Date recorded: December 30, 1899. Citation: ©[ ]}
1272.png
Song. song Background sounds: none Date recorded: April 29, 1998. Latitude: 39.9234 Longitude: -74.6519 Location: Dot & Brooks Evert Trail, Burlington County, NJ USA. Citation: Don Jones, XC1272. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/1272. ©Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5}
1273.png
Call. calls Background sounds: none Date recorded: April 28, 1994. Latitude: 39.9234 Longitude: -74.6519 Location: Dot & Brooks Evert Trail, Burlington County, NJ USA. Citation: Don Jones, XC1273. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/1273. ©Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5}
3063.png
Song. Natural song from coastal oak-hackberry chenier growth. Background sounds: * Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)· Date recorded: April 14, 1996. Latitude: 29.7833 Longitude: -93.2517 Location: Cameron, Cameron Par., Louisiana USA. Citation: Dan Lane, XC134635. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/134635. ©Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0}
5666.png
Female Song, Song. Four natural songs from a female Cardinal perched about 4 m up in Celtis in suburban neighborhood. She seems to sing from this tree most often. Male of pair sings partial phrases towards end of cut. Background sounds: * Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)· * Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis)· * Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus)· * Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)· * Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)· Date recorded: April 29, 2013. Latitude: 30.4334 Longitude: -91.1667 Elevation: 66 feet. Location: Baton Rouge, East B. R. Parish, LA USA. Citation: Dan Lane, XC131898. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/131898. ©Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0}
8258.png
Call. near the highway Background sounds: * Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)· * Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)· Date recorded: October 10, 2000. Latitude: 34.3344 Longitude: -78.7061 Elevation: 66 feet. Location: Whiteville, Columbus, North Carolina USA. Citation: Albert Lastukhin, XC129153. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/129153. ©Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0}
11947.png
Song. Singing just before dawn from 2m up in a lilac bush in an urban residential neighborhood. Same territory as XC121457. Another cardinal can be heard counter-singing in background. Background sounds: * American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)· Date recorded: March 16, 2013. Latitude: 44.942 Longitude: -93.259 Elevation: 853 feet. Location: Powderhorn Park, Minneapolis, MN USA. Citation: Jonathon Jongsma, XC125284. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/125284. ©Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0}
11992.png
Song. Background sounds: none Date recorded: April 25, 1999. Latitude: 36.1667 Longitude: -86.7833 Elevation: 492 feet. Location: Unknown wooded park, Nashville, Tennessee USA. Citation: Thomas G. Graves, XC125238. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/125238. ©Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0}
12448.png
Song. Background sounds: none Date recorded: April 25, 1999. Latitude: 36.1667 Longitude: -86.7833 Elevation: 492 feet. Location: Unknown wooded park, Nashville, Tennessee USA. Citation: Thomas G. Graves, XC124763. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/124763. ©Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0}
12450.png
Song. Background sounds: none Date recorded: April 25, 1999. Latitude: 36.1667 Longitude: -86.7833 Elevation: 492 feet. Location: Unknown wooded park, Nashville, Tennessee USA. Citation: Thomas G. Graves, XC124761. Accessible at www.xeno-canto.org/124761. ©Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0}

To explore 153 audio recordings of Cardinalis cardinalis, click here.

Conservation

IUCN Assessment:

  • Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
  • Year Published: 2012
  • Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
  • Assessor (s): BirdLife International
  • Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
  • Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
  • Justification:
    This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is ex[22]

Heritage Status: G5

Relationship with Humans

File:Juvenile male northern cardinal at feeder with female house finch.jpg
Juvenile male northern cardinal (left) at feeder with female house finch

The northern cardinal is found in residential areas throughout its range. Backyard birders attract it using feeders containing seeds, particularly sunflower seeds and safflower seeds. Although some controversy surrounds bird feeding (see bird feeder for details), an increase in backyard feeding by humans has generally been beneficial to this species. It is listed as a species of least concern by the IUCN Red List. It has an estimated global range of 5,800,000 km2 (2,200,000 sq mi) and a global population estimated to be about 100 million individuals.[1] Populations appear to remain stable and it has not reached the threshold of inclusion as a threatened species, which requires a decline of more than 30% in ten years or three generations.[1] It was once prized as a pet due to its bright color and distinctive song.[23] In the United States, this species receives special legal protection under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, which also banned their sale as cage birds.[24] It is also protected by the Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Canada.[25] It is illegal to take, kill, or possess northern cardinals, and violation of the law is punishable by a fine of up to US $15,000 and imprisonment of up to six months.[26] In the United States, the northern cardinal is the mascot of numerous athletic teams; however, most teams portray the bird with a yellow beak and legs. In professional sports, it is the mascot of the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball's National League and the Arizona Cardinals of the National Football League. In college athletics, it is the mascot of many schools including Ball State University, The Catholic University of America, Illinois State University, Iowa State University, Lamar University, the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, North Idaho College, Saint John Fisher College, the State University of New York at Plattsburgh, the University of Louisville, the University of the Incarnate Word, Wesleyan University, and Wheeling Jesuit University.

State bird

The northern cardinal is the state bird of seven states, more than any other species: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia. It was also a candidate to become the state bird of Delaware, but lost to the Delaware Blue Hen.[27]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 BirdLife International (2012). "Cardinalis cardinalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 2014-12-11. Retrieved 2013-11-26. 
  2. Dunning, John B. (ed.) (1992). "CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses". CRC Press. ISBN 9780849342585. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cornell Lab of Ornithology. "Cardinalis cardinalis". Cornell University. Archived from the original on 2015-02-15. Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Ritchison, Gary (1997). "Northern Cardinal". Stackpole Books. p. 2. ISBN 0-8117-3100-6. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Krinsky, Norman I; Mayne, Susan T. & Sies, Helmut (2004). "Carotenoids In Health And Disease". CRC Press. p. 258. ISBN 0-8247-5416-6. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 McGraw, Kevin J; Hill, Geoffrey E.; Stradi, Riccardo & Parker, Robert S (2001). "The Influence of Carotenoid Acquisition and Utilization on the Maintenance of Species-Typical Plumage Pigmentation in Male American Goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis)" (ABSTRACT). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology (University of Chicago Press) 74 (6): 843–852. PMID 11731975. doi:10.1086/323797. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  7. "Cardinals, Grosbeaks and allies". IOC World Bird List. 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-07-21. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Terres, J. K. (1980). "The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds". New York, NY: Knopf. p. 293. ISBN 0-394-46651-9. 
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Michigan
  10. 10.0 10.1 Elliott, Lang; Read, Marie (1998). "Common Birds and Their Songs". Houghton Mifflin Field Guides. p. 28. ISBN 0-395-91238-5. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Harrison, Hal H. (1979). "A Field Guide to Western Birds' Nests". Houghton Mifflin Field. p. 228. ISBN 0-618-16437-5. 
  12. "Northern Cardinal". Pennsylvania State University. 2002. Archived from the original on 2013-12-26. 
  13. Halkin, S., S. Linville. (1999). Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). pp. 1-32 in A. Poole, F. Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 440. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America.
  14. BirdLife International 2012. Cardinalis cardinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded 28 March 2015.
  15. Robison, B C; Tveten, John L (1990). "Birds of Houston". University of Texas Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-89263-303-4. 
  16. Template:la icon Linnaeus, C (1758). "Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.". Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 824. 
  17. {{cit e book | last=Bailey | first=Florence Merriam | title=Handbook of Birds of the Western United States | publisher=Houghton Mifflin Harcourt | year=1921 | pages=500 | url=http://books.google.com/?id=6w0LAAAAIAAJ&dq=}}
  18. 18.0 18.1 Holloway, Joel Ellis (2003). "Dictionary of Birds of the United States: Scientific and Common Names". Timber Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-88192-600-0. 
  19. Duchesne, Bob (2012-09-21). "Proliferation of cardinals a fairly recent event". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on |archiveurl= requires |archivedate= (help).  Unknown parameter |ar chivedate= ignored (help)
  20. International Ornithologists’ Committee. IOC World Bird List 5.2 doi 10.14344/IOC.ML.5.2 link
  21. BirdLife International 2012. Cardinalis cardinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded 28 March 2015.
  22. BirdLife International 2012. Cardinalis cardinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded 28 March 2015.
  23. Wright, Mabel Osgood (1907). "Birdcraft: A Field Book of Two Hundred Song, Game, and Water Birds". Macmillan Publishers. p. 161. 
  24. "Birds Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  25. "50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds". Code of Federal Regulations (Cornell Law School). Retrieved 2015-02-23. 
  26. "16 U.S. Code Chapter 7, Subchapter II Migratory Bird Treaty Act". Code of Federal Regulations (Cornell Law School). Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  27. deValinger, Jr., Leon (July 8, 1940). "Letters to the Editors". Life: 4. Retrieved 2015-02-23. </re f> </div>

    More Information

    Identifiers

    • Catalog of Life Identifier: a778af289432500b72a44111123eaf17
    • GBIF: TaxonID: 4846779 TaxonKey: 13810502
    • Heritage Identifier: ABPBX60010
    • ITIS: 179124
    • IUCN ID: 22723819
    • Namebank ID: 7925
    • SP2000 Accepted Name Code: ITS-179125
    • ZipcodeZoo CritterID: 273

    References

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 BirdLife International (2012). "Cardinalis cardinalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 2014-12-11. Retrieved 2013-11-26. 
    2. Dunning, John B. (ed.) (1992). "CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses". CRC Press. ISBN 9780849342585. 
    3. 3.0 3.1 Cornell Lab of Ornithology. "Cardinalis cardinalis". Cornell University. Archived from the original on 2015-02-15. Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Ritchison, Gary (1997). "Northern Cardinal". Stackpole Books. p. 2. ISBN 0-8117-3100-6. 
    5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Krinsky, Norman I; Mayne, Susan T. & Sies, Helmut (2004). "Carotenoids In Health And Disease". CRC Press. p. 258. ISBN 0-8247-5416-6. 
    6. 6.0 6.1 McGraw, Kevin J; Hill, Geoffrey E.; Stradi, Riccardo & Parker, Robert S (2001). "The Influence of Carotenoid Acquisition and Utilization on the Maintenance of Species-Typical Plumage Pigmentation in Male American Goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis)" (ABSTRACT). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology (University of Chicago Press) 74 (6): 843–852. PMID 11731975. doi:10.1086/323797. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
    7. "Cardinals, Grosbeaks and allies". IOC World Bird List. 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-07-21. 
    8. 8.0 8.1 Terres, J. K. (1980). "The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds". New York, NY: Knopf. p. 293. ISBN 0-394-46651-9. 
    9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Michigan
    10. 10.0 10.1 Elliott, Lang; Read, Marie (1998). "Common Birds and Their Songs". Houghton Mifflin Field Guides. p. 28. ISBN 0-395-91238-5. 
    11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Harrison, Hal H. (1979). "A Field Guide to Western Birds' Nests". Houghton Mifflin Field. p. 228. ISBN 0-618-16437-5. 
    12. "Northern Cardinal". Pennsylvania State University. 2002. Archived from the original on 2013-12-26. 
    13. Halkin, S., S. Linville. (1999). Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). pp. 1-32 in A. Poole, F. Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 440. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America.
    14. BirdLife International 2012. Cardinalis cardinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded 28 March 2015.
    15. Robison, B C; Tveten, John L (1990). "Birds of Houston". University of Texas Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-89263-303-4. 
    16. Template:la icon Linnaeus, C (1758). "Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.". Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 824. 
    17. {{cit e book | last=Bailey | first=Florence Merriam | title=Handbook of Birds of the Western United States | publisher=Houghton Mifflin Harcourt | year=1921 | pages=500 | url=http://books.google.com/?id=6w0LAAAAIAAJ&dq=}}
    18. 18.0 18.1 Holloway, Joel Ellis (2003). "Dictionary of Birds of the United States: Scientific and Common Names". Timber Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-88192-600-0. 
    19. Duchesne, Bob (2012-09-21). "Proliferation of cardinals a fairly recent event". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on |archiveurl= requires |archivedate= (help).  Unknown parameter |ar chivedate= ignored (help)
    20. International Ornithologists’ Committee. IOC World Bird List 5.2 doi 10.14344/IOC.ML.5.2 link
    21. BirdLife International 2012. Cardinalis cardinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded 28 March 2015.
    22. BirdLife International 2012. Cardinalis cardinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded 28 March 2015.
    23. Wright, Mabel Osgood (1907). "Birdcraft: A Field Book of Two Hundred Song, Game, and Water Birds". Macmillan Publishers. p. 161. 
    24. "Birds Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
    25. "50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds". Code of Federal Regulations (Cornell Law School). Retrieved 2015-02-23. 
    26. "16 U.S. Code Chapter 7, Subchapter II Migratory Bird Treaty Act". Code of Federal Regulations (Cornell Law School). Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
    27. deValinger, Jr., Leon (July 8, 1940). "Letters to the Editors". Life: 4. Retrieved 2015-02-23. </re f> </div>

      More Information

      Identifiers

      • Catalog of Life Identifier: a778af289432500b72a44111123eaf17
      • GBIF: TaxonID: 4846779 TaxonKey: 13810502
      • Heritage Identifier: ABPBX60010
      • ITIS: 179124
      • IUCN ID: 22723819
      • Namebank ID: 7925
      • SP2000 Accepted Name Code: ITS-179125
      • ZipcodeZoo CritterID: 273

      References

      <references></references>

      Bibliography

      • Bradley, N. L.; Leopold, A. C.; Ross, J.; Huffaker, W. 1999. Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin. iProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America/i 96: 9701-9704.
      • IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at:IUCNRedList.org (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
      • Rich, T.D.; Beardmore, C.J.; Berlanga, H.; Blancher, P.J.; Bradstreet, M.S.W.; Butcher, G.S.; Demarest, D.W.; Dunn, E.H.; Hunter, W.C.; Inigo-Elias, E.E.; Martell, A.M.; Panjabi, A.O.; Pashley, D.N.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Rustay, C.M.; Wendt, J.S.; Will, T.C. 2004. iPartners in flight: North American landbird conservation plan/i. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.

      External Links

      Template:good article

      Contributors

      • BirdLife International 2009. iCardinalis cardinalis/i. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloadedon 31January2012.
      • Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
      • Halkin, Sylvia L. and Susan U. Linville. 1999. Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/440 doi:10.2173/bna.440
      • IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Downloaded on January 28, 2012.

      Page Notes

      <references></references>
      • URL: http://ZipcodeZoo.com/index.php/Cardinalis_cardinalis
      • Primary Sources: Global Biodiversity Information Facility · the Taxonomicon · Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera · Wikimedia Commons · Wikipedia · Wikispecies · ITIS Global, Sep 2014 · ZipcodeZoo.com.
      • Map Data Sources: Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 05, 2008:Avian Knowledge Network: eBird · Avian Knowledge Network: Great Backyard Bird Count · Avian Knowledge Network: Macaulay Library - Video Data · Avian Knowledge Network: Project FeederWatch · Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum: Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data · Bird Studies Canada: Marsh Monitoring Program - Birds · Bird Studies Canada: Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 1981-1985 · Bird Studies Canada: Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 2001-2005 · Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics · Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds (Aves) · Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Bird Collection · Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates: Bird Collection · Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Ornithology Collection · Museum of Vertebrate Zoology: Terrestrial vertebrate specimens

      · New Brunswick Museum: NBM birds · Royal Ontario Museum: Bird specimens · Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History: Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History · The New York Botanical Garden: Bronx River Bioblitz · UNIBIO, IBUNAM: CNAV/Coleccion Nacional de Aves · University of Alaska Museum of the North: University of New Mexico Museum of Southwestern Biology Bird Collection · University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ): Bird specimens ·

    Bibliography

    • Bradley, N. L.; Leopold, A. C.; Ross, J.; Huffaker, W. 1999. Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin. iProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America/i 96: 9701-9704.
    • IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at:IUCNRedList.org (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
    • Rich, T.D.; Beardmore, C.J.; Berlanga, H.; Blancher, P.J.; Bradstreet, M.S.W.; Butcher, G.S.; Demarest, D.W.; Dunn, E.H.; Hunter, W.C.; Inigo-Elias, E.E.; Martell, A.M.; Panjabi, A.O.; Pashley, D.N.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Rustay, C.M.; Wendt, J.S.; Will, T.C. 2004. iPartners in flight: North American landbird conservation plan/i. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.

    External Links

    Template:good article

    Contributors

    • BirdLife International 2009. iCardinalis cardinalis/i. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloadedon 31January2012.
    • Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
    • Halkin, Sylvia L. and Susan U. Linville. 1999. Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/440 doi:10.2173/bna.440
    • IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Downloaded on January 28, 2012.

    Page Notes

    • URL: http://ZipcodeZoo.com/index.php/Cardinalis_cardinalis
    • Primary Sources: Global Biodiversity Information Facility · the Taxonomicon · Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera · Wikimedia Commons · Wikipedia · Wikispecies · ITIS Global, Sep 2014 · ZipcodeZoo.com.
    • Map Data Sources: Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 05, 2008:Avian Knowledge Network: eBird · Avian Knowledge Network: Great Backyard Bird Count · Avian Knowledge Network: Macaulay Library - Video Data · Avian Knowledge Network: Project FeederWatch · Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum: Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data · Bird Studies Canada: Marsh Monitoring Program - Birds · Bird Studies Canada: Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 1981-1985 · Bird Studies Canada: Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 2001-2005 · Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics · Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds (Aves) · Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Bird Collection · Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates: Bird Collection · Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Ornithology Collection · Museum of Vertebrate Zoology: Terrestrial vertebrate specimens

    · New Brunswick Museum: NBM birds · Royal Ontario Museum: Bird specimens · Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History: Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History · The New York Botanical Garden: Bronx River Bioblitz · UNIBIO, IBUNAM: CNAV/Coleccion Nacional de Aves · University of Alaska Museum of the North: University of New Mexico Museum of Southwestern Biology Bird Collection · University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ): Bird specimens ·