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fi:Dunkleosteus terrelli

hu:Dunkleosteus terrelli no:Dunkleosteus terrelli pt:Dunkleosteus terrelli


At least 10 different species[1][2] of Dunkleosteus have been described so far. The type species, D. terrelli, is the largest, best-known species of the genus. It has a rounded snout. D. terrelli's fossil remains are found in Upper Frasnian to Upper Famennian Late Devonian strata of the United States (Huron and Cleveland Shales of Ohio, the Conneaut of Pennsylvania, Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee, Lost Burro Formation, California, and possibly Ives breccia of Texas[2]) and Europe. D. belgicus (?) is known from fragments described from the Famennian of Belgium. The median dorsal plate is characteristic of the genus, but, a plate that was described as a suborbital is apparently an anteriolateral plate.[2] D. denisoni is known from a small median dorsal plate, typical in appearance for Dunkleosteus, but much smaller than normal.[2]

D. marsaisi refers to the Dunkleosteus fossils from the Lower Famennian Late Devonian strata of the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. It differs in size, the known skulls averaging a length of 35 cm and in form to D. terrelli. In D. marsaisi, the snout is narrower, and a postpineal fenestra may be present. Many researchers and authorities consider it a synonym of D. terrelli.[3] H. Schultze regards D. marsaisi as a member of Eastmanosteus.[2][4] D. magnificus is a large placoderm from the Frasnian Rhinestreet Shale of New York. It was originally described as "Dinichthys magnificus" by Hussakof and Bryant in 1919, then as "Dinichthys mirabilis" by Heintz in 1932. Dunkle and Lane moved it to Dunkleosteus in 1971.[2] D. missouriensis is known from fragments from Frasnian Missouri. Dunkle and Lane regard them as being very similar to D. terrelli.[2] D. newberryi is known primarily from a 28-cm-long infragnathal with a prominent anterior cusp, found in the Frasnian portion of the Genesee group of New York, and originally described as "Dinichthys newberryi".[2] D. amblyodoratus is known from some fragmentary remains from Late Devonian strata of Kettle Point, Canada. The species name means "blunt spear" and refers to the way the nuchal and paranuchal plates in the back of the head form the shape of a blunted spearhead. Although it is known only from fragments, it is estimated to have been about 20 ft long in life.[1]

D. raveri is a small, possibly 1-m-long species known from an uncrushed skull roof, found in a carbonate concretion from near the bottom of the Huron Shale, of the Famennian Ohio Shale strata. Besides its small size, it had comparatively large eyes. Because D. raveri was found in the strata directly below the strata where the remains of D. terrelli are found, D. raveri may have given rise to D. terrelli. The species name commemorates Clarence Raver of Wakeman, Ohio, who discovered the concretion where the holotype was found.[1]

Vernacular Names

  • Chinese: 鄧氏魚
  • Esperanto: Dunkleosteo
  • Finnish: Dunkleosteus terrelli
  • Hungarian: Dunkleosteus terrelli
  • Japanese: ダンクルオステウス
  • Norwegian: Dunkleosteus terrelli
  • Persian (Farsi): دانکلوستئوس
  • Portuguese: Dunkleosteus terrelli
  • Russian: Дунклеостей
  • Thai: ดังเคิลออสเตียส
  • Ukrainian: Дунклеостей

Scientific Name

Dunkleosteus Lehman, 1956




Map showing distribution of observations of Dunkleosteus.

End Notes


  • Carr, R.K. & W.J. Hlavin}}, , 2010: Two new species of Dunkleosteus Lehman, 1956, from the Ohio Shale Formation (USA, Famennian) and the Kettle Point Formation (Canada, Upper Devonian), and a cladistic analysis of the Eubrachythoraci (Placodermi, Arthrodira). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 159 (1): 195-222. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00578.x. Abstract: [1].

Page Notes

  • URL: http://ZipcodeZoo.com/index.php/Dunkleosteus
  • Primary Sources: Global Biodiversity Information Facility · Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera · Wikipedia · Wikispecies · ZipcodeZoo.com.
  • Last revised: 2015-2-3. Last revision: ZZBot. 6753 bytes.


  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Carr.2B2010
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Denison, Robert (1978). "Placodermi Volume 2 of Handbook of Paleoichthyology'". Stuttgart New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-89574-027-4. 
  3. Murray, A.M. (2000). "The Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic fishes of Africa". Fish and Fisheries 1 (2): 111–145. doi:10.1046/j.1467-2979.2000.00015.x. 
  4. Schultz, H (1973). "Large Upper Devonian arthrodires from Iran". Fieldiana Geology 23: 53–78. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.5270.