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Colophospermum


Colophospermum Kirk ex J. Léonard
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takhtajan & W. Zimmermann, 1966
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales Bromhead, 1838
Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
Genus: Colophospermum Kirk ex J. Léonard
Mopane
File:Mopane.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
Tribe: Detarieae
Genus: Colophospermum
Kirk ex J.Léonard
Species: C. mopane
Binomial name
Colophospermum mopane
(Kirk ex Benth.) Kirk ex J.Léonard

Colophospermum mopane, commonly called mopane,[1] mopani, balsam tree,[1] butterfly tree,[1] or turpentine tree,[1] is a tree in the legume family (Fabaceae), that grows in hot, dry, low-lying areas, in elevation, in the far northern parts of southern Africa, into South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Namibia, Angola and Malawi. The tree only occurs in Africa and is the only species in genus Colophospermum. The species name mopane is taken from the local name for the tree.

Distribution of Mopane

It is found growing in alkaline (high lime content) soils which are shallow and not well drained. It also grows in alluvial soils (soil deposited by rivers). In small portions of South Africa and larger adjacent areas of Botswana and Zimbabwe, the trees tend to vary between , often called "mopane scrub" (shrub) but also sometimes taller and forming woodland, where further north the trees are taller and form tall woodlands referred to as cathedral mopane. This tree does not grow well outside hot, frost-free areas with summer rainfall.

Its distinctive butterfly-shaped (bifoliate) leaf and thin seed pod make it easy to identify. For human use it is, together with camel thorn and leadwood, one of the three regionally important firewood trees. The name Colophospermum is Greek for "oily seed", in reference to the resinous seeds. The part of the name, colophos, apparently refers to the strong turpentine smell of the resin. Colophon was the birthplace of Homer in Ionia, and was famous for its rosin, a substance obtained from turpentine or the gummy exudate of some trees.

Uses

File:Mopane worm on mopane tree.jpg
Branch of a Mopane tree, with a mopane worm (Gonimbrasia belina) on it. Immediately below the caterpillar, a pair of distinctive, butterfly-shaped leaves have survived.

Mopane wood is one of southern Africa's heaviest and is difficult to work because of its hardness.[2] However, this also makes it termite resistant. For this reason it has long been used for building houses and fences, as railway sleepers and as pit props. The termite-resistance and rich, reddish colouring also make it popular for flooring. Outside Africa, mopane is gaining popularity as a heavy, decorative wood, its uses including aquarium ornaments, bases for lamps or sculptures, and garden accents. It is also increasingly being used in the construction of musical instruments, particularly woodwind. Suitable quality African blackwood (Dalbergia melanoxylon), traditionally used for clarinets, is becoming harder to find. Mopane is fairly oily, seasons very well with few splits or shakes, and produces instruments of a warm, rich tone.[3] Mopane twigs have been traditionally used as tooth brushes, bark to make twine and for tanning, and leaves for healing wounds. The wood is also used to make charcoal and for braai wood. The tree is a major food source for the mopane worm, the caterpillar of the moth Imbrasia belina. The caterpillars are rich in protein and are eaten by people. The tree also acts as a foodplant for a wild silk moth, Gonometa rufobrunnea. Cocoons of the moth are harvested as wild silk, to make cloth. The mopane tree also serves as a host plant for the mopane psyllid Retroacizzia mopani.[4][5]

Botanical Name

Colophospermum J.Kirk ex Benth.

Taxonomy

Higher Taxa

  • Genus Colophospermum Kirk ex J. Léonard
  • </ul>

    Species

    Distribution


    Map showing distribution of observations of Colophospermum.

    End Notes

    References

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
    2. The Wood Database Mopane. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
    3. Prosono International Woods for woodwinds. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
    4. Oppong, C.K., Addo-Bediako, A., Potgieter, M.J. & Wessels, D.C.J. 2009. Distribution of the eggs of the mopane psyllid Retroacizzia mopani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on the mopane tree. African Invertebrates 50 (1): 185-190. [1]
    5. Oppong, C.K., Addo-Bediako, A., Potgieter, M.J. & Wessels, D.C.J. 2010. Nymphal behaviour and lerp construction in the mopane psyllid Retroacizzia mopani (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). African Invertebrates 51 (1): 201-205.[2]
    • Esterhuyse, N., Von Breitenbach, J. & Söhnge, H. 2001. Remarkable trees of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
    • Ferwerda, J.G. (2005) Charting the quality of forage: measuring and mapping the variation of chemical components in foliage with hyperspectral remote sensing. Wageningen, Wageningen University, 2005. ITC Dissertation 126, 166 p.&nbsp;ISBN 90-8504-209-7.
    • Trans. Linn. Soc. London 25(2): 316, in obs. 1865 [30 Nov 1865] ; J. Leonard in Bull. Jard.Bot. Brux. 19: 390 (1949)
    • "gen". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 08-Apr-12.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)

    Page Notes

    • URL: http://ZipcodeZoo.com/index.php/Colophospermum
    • Primary Sources: Global Biodiversity Information Facility · The Catalogue of Life, 3rd January 2011 · Wikipedia · Wikispecies · ZipcodeZoo.com.
    • Last revised: 2015-2-2. Last revision: ZZBot. 10446 bytes.

    Footnotes