Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Chevalier cul-blanc, Chevalier culblanc
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Piro piro culbianco, Piro-piro culbianco
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Swedish:
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,911 meters (0 to 9,551 feet).
Behaviour This species is fully migratory and moves overland
on a broad front2 with European populations making
well-documented stop-overs in Saharan oases1. Southward
movements to the wintering
occur between June and early November,
with the species being present in the north and equatorial tropics
from late-August to early-April, and in southern Africa
to March1, 2. The return passage
to northern breeding
grounds occurs between late-February and mid-May1, 2,
where the species breeds between late April and June1.
In mild winters some birds may also remain in the breeding grounds
of southern Scandinavia1. The species generally
occurs in low concentrations during passage and at stop-over sites,
although it may occur in small scattered
groups of up to 30 individuals1
in the winter, with aggregations of over 50 being unusual4.
Habitat Breeding During the breeding season
inhabits damp areas in swampy, old pine, spruce or alder woodland
with many fallen and rotten tree
forest floors and heavy carpets of lichens and mosses, generally
in the vicinity of rivers
and bogs4. Non-breeding Outside of the breeding
this species shows a preference for a wider variety of inland
such as marshes, lake
dams and ponds, ditches, riverbanks and forest streams, often near
villages and cultivation1, 2 (although less often
in the vicinity of woodland)1. It is also very
rarely found in intertidal areas such as creeks
and the channels
of saltmarches1, 3. Diet The species is
, although its diet
is predominantly made up of aquatic
, waterbugs, moth larvae, and the adults
and larvae of beetles,
Diptera and Trichoptera), annelids
, small crustaceans, spiders and
fish, as well as plant fragments1. Breeding
site This species frequently nests
high in trees in the abandoned
nests of passerine
species such as Common Woodpigeon Columba palumbus,
thrushes Turdus spp.1, 5, crows, jays and
shrikes3, but may also nest in squirrel dreys3,
4, on natural platforms up to 20 m
and occasionally on tree stumps or mounds of accumulated pine needles
among branches and tree roots, or amongst fallen trees on the ground3,
information Unfertilised grasslands
with low cattle densities (0.5 cows
) were found to attract
a higher abundance
of this species in Hungary7.
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.1 Forest - Boreal
- 1.9 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
- 4 Grassland
- 4.6 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps, Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 5.8 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.1 Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
- 14.2 Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
- 14.4 Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.2 Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
- 15.6 Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
- 15.8 Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
- 15.9 Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Huxley, 1867
- Huxley, 1867
- Beddard, 1898
- Infraorder: Scolopacides () - Strauch, 1978
- Suborder: Limicolae () - Beddard, 1898
- Order: Charadriiformes () - Huxley, 1867
- Superorder: Charadriimorphae () - Huxley, 1867
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 17-Oct-2001
Members of the genus Tringa
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 24 species and subspecies in this genus:
(Gray-Tailed Tattler) · T. cinerea (Terek Sandpiper) · (Spotted Redshank) · (Lesser Yellowlegs) · (Wood Sandpiper) · (Nordmann's Greenshank) · T. hypoleucos (Common Sandpiper) · T. hypoleucos hypoleucos (Common Sandpiper) · (Wandering Tattler) · T. macularia (Spotted Sandpiper) · (Greater Yellowlegs) · (Common Greenshank) · (Green Sandpiper) · (Solitary Sandpiper) · (Solitary Sandpiper (Western)) · (Solitary Sandpiper (Eastern)) · (Marsh Sandpiper) · (Common Redshank) · T. totanus eurhina (Common Redshank) · (Common Redshank) · T. totanus robusta or totanus (Common Redshank) · (Common Redshank) · (Common Redshank) · (Common Redshank)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A Floral and faunal inventory of the eastern slopes of the Réserve naturelle intégrale d'Andringitra, Madagascar: with reference to elevational variation / Steven M. Goodman, editor. 85 1996 [Chicago, Ill.]: Field Museum of Natural History, c1996. url p. 183.
- A geographical and comparative list of the birds of Europe and North America / by Charles Lucian Bonaparte. London: J. Van Voorst, 1838. url p. 51.
- A hand-list of the birds of Japan, by M. Ogawa. [Tokyo]1908. url p. 363.
- A handbook to the vertebrate fauna of north Wales. London, Witherby & Co., 1919. url p. 66.
- A history of British animals: exhibiting the descriptive characters and systematical arrangement of the genera and species of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, mollusca, and radiata of the United Kingdom; including the indigeno by John Fleming. Edinburgh: Printed for Bell & Bradfute; 1828. url p. 103.
- A history of British birds by William Yarrell; illustrated by 535 wood-engravings. London: J. Van Voorst, 1845. url p. 595.
- A history of British birds, indigenous and migratory: including their organization, habits, and relations; remarks on classification and nomenclature; an account of the principal organs of birds, and observations relative to practical ornithology. .. By William Macgillivray. .. London, Printed for Scott, Webster, and Geary, 1837-1852 url p. 342.
- A history of British birds, with coloured illustrations of their eggs. By Henry Seebohm. .. London, Pub. for the author by R.H. Porter [etc.]1883-85. url p. 132.
- A history of British birds. By the Rev. F. O. Morris. London, Groombridge and sons, [1851-57?] url .
- A history of the birds of Europe: including all the species inhabiting the western palaearctic region / London: Published by the Author, 1871-1881. url , p. 135.
- A manual of North American birds. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1900. url p. 166.
- A manual of the ornithology of the United States and of Canada. By Thomas Nuttall. .. Cambridge, Hilliard and Brown, 1832-1834. url p. 157.
- A natural history of the nests and eggs of British birds. By the Rev. F.O. Morris. London, J.C. Nimmo, 1892. url p. 24.
- A reprint of the North American zoology, by George Ord. Being an exact reproduction of the part originally compiled by Mr. Ord for Johnson & Warner, and first published by them in their 2d American ed. of Guthrie's geography, in 1815. Taken Haddonsfield, N.J., Pub. by the editor, 1894. url p. 45.
- Anatomical and zoological researches: comprising an account of the zoological results of the two expeditions to western Yunnan in 1868 and 1875; and a monograph of the two cetacean genera, Platanista and Orcella / London: B. Quaritch, 1878. url .
- Ardea. Amsterdam, etc., Nederlandse Ornithlogische Unie, etc. url p. 78.
- Austral avian record; a scientific journal devoted primarily to the study of the Australian avifauna. London: Witherby. url p. 123, p. 165.
- Bird notes. Brighton: Foreign Bird Club: 1902-1925. url p. 137.
- Birds from Nepal [by] Austin L. Rand [and] Robert L. Fleming. 41 1957 [Chicago]Chicago Natural History Museum, 1957. url p. 67.
- Birds of the Philippine Islands: Siquijor, Mount Malindang, Bohol, and Samar / Austin L. Rand and Dioscoro S. Rabor. 35 1958 Chicago: Chicago Natural History Museum, 1960. url p. 327, p. 379.
- Birds of western China obtained by the Kelley-Roosevelts expedition. 18 1932 Chicago, 1932. url p. 346.
- Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cie?ncias Naturais. Lisboa, Sociedade Portuguesa de Cie?ncias Naturais, 1908- url p. 173.
- British birds. London, Witherby & Co. url p. 111, p. 172, p. 193, p. 214, p. 217, p. 242, p. 256, p. 269, p. 273, p. 288, p. 326, p. 53, p. 9.
- British fauna, containing a compendium of the zoology of the British Islands: arranged according to the Linnean system. By W. Turton. .. Vol. I, including the classes Mammalia, birds, Amphibia, fishes and worms. .. Swansea, Printed by J. Evans, 1807. url p. 59.
- British zoology, London: Printed for Wilkie and Robinson [etc.], 1812. url p. 86.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url , p. 123, p. 181, p. 355, p. 614, p. 91.
- Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New YorkAmerican Museum of Natural History1881- url p. 19.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1950-1977. url p. 213, p. 215, p. 217, p. 219, p. 242.
- Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club. Cambridge, Mass.: The Club, [1876-1883] url p. 49.
- Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories / Department of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874- url p. 844.
- Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. London, 1874-98. url p. 444, p. 491.
- Catalogue of the birds in the Museum Asiatic Society / by Edward Blyth. Published by order of the society. Calcutta: J. Thomas, 1849. url p. 267.
- Catalogue of the genera and subgenera of birds contained in the British Museum. London, Printed by order of the Trustees, 1855. url p. 116.
- Catalogue of the specimens and drawings of mammalia and birds of Nepal and Thibet. Presented by B.H. Hodgson to the British Museum. London, By order of the Trustees, 1846. url p. 139.
- Central Asiatic Expeditions of the American Museum of Natural History, under the leadership of Roy Chapman Andrews: preliminary contributions in geology, palaeontology, and zoology / by R.C. Andrews. .. [et al.] [New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1926-1930]. url p. 601.
- Check-list of North American birds, New York, American Ornithologists' Union, 1895. url .
- Checklists for the CORINE Biotopes Programme and its application in the PHARE countries of Central and East Europe: including comparisons with relevant conventions and agreements on the conservation of European species and habitats EC url p. 9.
- Contributions to the natural history of the Bermudas. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1884. url p. 239.
- Directory of Wetlands of International Importance. IUCN url p. 236, p. 304, p. 506, p. 590, p. 624, p. 750, p. 780.
- Edinburgh encyclopaedia, conducted by David Brewster. .. with the assistance of gentlemen eminent in science and literature. Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1830. url p. 706.
- Fleas, flukes & cuckoos; a study of bird parasites, by Miriam Rothschild and Theresa Clay. New York, Macmillan, 1957. url p. 194, p. 289, p. 305.
- Hardwicke's science-gossip: an illustrated medium of interchange and gossip for students and lovers of nature. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866- url p. 256.
- History of British animals / by John Fleming. Edinburgh: Bell & Bradfute; 1828. url p. 103.
- Ibis. [London]Published for the British Ornithologists' Union by Academic Press. url p. 139, p. 163, p. 168, p. 192, p. 224, p. 238, p. 258, p. 33, p. 348, p. 382, p. 427, p. 467, p. 511, p. 534, p. 58, p. 607, p. 616, p. 710.
- Illustrations of British ornithology. By Prideaux John Selby. [Dublin], Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman, London; and1833. url p. 75, p. 75.
- Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1817-1918. url p. 86.
- Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society: official publication of the Coryndon Memorial Museum (Museum Trustees of Kenya). Nairobi, Kenya: The Museum, 1942- url p. 166, p. 7.
- Kingsbridge and its surroundings. By S.P. Fox. Plymouth: Printed for the compiler by G.P. Friend, 1874. url p. 257.
- List of the specimens of birds in the collection of the British Museum. London: Printed by the order of the Trustees, 1848-1856. url p. 101.
- List of the specimens of the British animals in the collection of the British museum. London: Printed by order of the Trustees, 1845-55. url p. 95.
- MAB Biosphere Reserves: Site Descriptions, post compilation 5 (October 1990) UNESCO MAB Programme url .
- Madagascar: an environmental profile IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 177.
- Magazine of natural history and journal of zoology, botany, mineralogy, geology and meteorology. London: printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1829-1837. url p. 176, p. 573.
- Manual of British birds: including the essential characteristics of the orders, families, genera, and species. London: Printed for Adam Scott, 1846. url p. 95.
- Memoirs and proceedings of the Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society. Manchester: The Society, 1888-1980. url p. 27.
- Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 12 1884 Cambridge [Mass.]: The Museum, 1876-1940. url fig. in text, page 278, p. 278.
- Memorial edition of Thomas Bewick's works. London, B. Quaritch, 1885-87. url p. 101.
- Nature Reserves of the Himalaya and the Mountains of Central Asia IUCN url p. 269, p. 471.
- Official lists and indexes of names and works in zoology / edited by R.V. Melville and J.D.D. Smith. London: ICZN, 1987. url p. 181.
- Opinions and declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. London, Printed by order of the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. url p. 92, p. 99.
- Ornithological bibliography. [Washington: Geological Survey [etc.], 1878-1880. url p. 852.
- Picture of organized nature, in its spreading over the earth. Translated from the German of Wilbrand & Ritgen. London, Smith, 1828. url p. 72.
- Postilla. 1962 New Haven, Conn.: Peabody Museum of Natural History, [1950?]-c2004. url p. 4, p. 4.
- Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London. [London]: Printed for the Society by Richard Taylor, [1831-1832] url p. 124, p. 124, p. 124, p. 162, p. 162, p. 162.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 10, p. 13, p. 596, p. 7, p. 70.
- Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. London: Academic Press, [etc.], 1833-1965. url p. 529.
- Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Washington, A. O. P. Nicholson, printer [etc.]1855-60. url .
- Revue méthodique et critique des collections déposées dans cet établissement. Leyden, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. url p. 70, p. 73.
- Royle, J. F. Illustrations of the botany and other branches of the natural history of the Himalayan Mountains: and of the flora of Cashmere /by J. Forbes Royle. 1 1839 London: Wm. H. Allen, 1839. url p. lxxviii, p. lxxviii.
- Special scientific report--wildlife / U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service, 1949- url p. 134, p. 135, p. 164, p. 166, p. 174, p. 245, p. 274, p. 281, p. 298, p. 311, p. 321, p. 322, p. 336, p. 437, p. 594, p. 680, p. 684, p. 90, p. 96.
- Stray feathers. Journal of ornithology for India and its dependencies. Calcutta: s.n., 1872-1899. url p. 141.
- Supplement II to the General synopsis of birds London: Printed for Leigh, Sotheby & Son. .., 1801. url .
- Supplement to the code of nomenclature and check-list of North American birds. adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union; prepared by a Committee of the Union. New York: The Union, 1889-1920. url p. 447.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 222, p. 222.
- The Annals of Scottish natural history. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1892-1911. url p. 204.
- The Auk. Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union, etc., 1884- url p. 447.
- The Bulletin of zoological nomenclature. London, International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. url p. 435, p. 52.
- The Emu: official organ of the Australasian Ornithologists' Union. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, 1901- url p. 70.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 668, p. 865, p. 878.
- The Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam. [Bangkok, Thailand]: The Society, url p. 39.
- The Marine Mammal Commission compendium of selected treaties, international agreements, and other relevant documents on marine resources, wildlife, and the environment / compiled by Richard L. Wallace. Washington, D.C.: The Commission; 1994 url p. 689.
- The Philosophical magazine: or Annals of chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, natural history and general science. London: Richard Taylor and Co. url p. 458.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng. [etc.]: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux [etc.] url p. 288.
- The Scottish naturalist. Arbroath [etc.]T. Buncle & Co. [etc.] url , , p. 102, p. 102, p. 126, p. 137, p. 151, p. 155, p. 195, p. 9.
- The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization / by the Baron Cuvier; the Crustacea, Arachnides and Insecta, by P.A. Latreille; translated from the French, with notes and additions, by H. M'Murtrie; in four volumes, with plates. New York: G. & C. & H. Carvill, 1831. url p. 389, p. 389, p. 392.
- The animal kingdom, arranged according to its organization, serving as a foundation for the natural history of animals: and an introduction to comparative anatomy / Baron Cuvier. London, G. Henderson, 1834-37. url p. 348.
- The birds of Dorsetshire; a contribution to the natural history of the county, by J.C. Mansel-Pleydell. .. London: R.H. Porter; [etc., etc., 1888?] url p. 96.
- The birds of South Africa, London, R. H. Porter, 1900-1906. url .
- The birds of South Africa, by Arthur C. Stark. .. London: R. H. Porter, 1900-1906. url p. 397.
- The birds of the British Isles and their eggs. by T.A. Coward; with 213 accurately coloured illustrations by Archibald Thorburn and others, reproduced from Lord Lilford's work Coloured figures of the birds of the British Islands, and 69 photograp London; F. Warne, 1920. url p. 164.
- The birds of the Japanese Empire. London, R. H. Porter, 1890. url .
- The game birds and wild fowl of the British Islands. Sheffield, Pawson & Brailsford, 1900. url .
- The geographical distribution of the family Charadriidae, or the plovers, sandpipers, snipes, and their allies / London; H. Sotheran & Co.,  url p. 366.
- The journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta: Bishop's College Press, 1832-1936 url p. 322, p. 644.
- The life and letters of Gilbert White of Selborne / written and edited by his great-grand-nephew R. Holt-White; with pedigree, portraits, and illustrations; in two volumes. London: J. Murray, 1901. url p. 296.
- The natural history of the USSR / Algirdas Knystautas; foreword by Vladimir Flint; [translation, John S. Scott]. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987. url p. 100, p. 211.
- The naturalist's library. Conducted by Sir William Jardine. Edinburgh, W. H. Lizars; [etc., etc.]1833- url p. 209.
- The ornithology of Illinois. Part I. Descriptive catalogue. By Robert Ridgway. Part II. Economic ornithology. By S. A. Forbes. Pub. by the authority of the state Legislature. Springfield, Ill.: H. W. Rokker, printer, 1889-95. url p. 62, p. 62.
- Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle: T. & J. Hodgson; 1831-1838. url p. 14, p. 271.
- University of Kansas publications, Museum of Natural History. 17 1966 Lawrence, University of Kansas. url p. 394, p. 657.
- Wilson's American ornithology, with notes by Jardine. To which is added a synopsis of American birds, including those described by Bonaparte, Audubon, Nuttall, and Richardson, by T.M. Brewer. New York, T.L. Magagnos, 1854. url .
- Zoologist. London.1843-1916 url p. 319, p. 9115.
- BirdLife International 2009. Tringa ochropus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 05February2012.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Western Palearctic migrants in continental Africa
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- , Bird specimens
- Upper Silesian Museum, Bytom, Upper Silesian Museum, Bird Observations
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8131
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-176632
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 176632
- IUCN ID: 247160
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 4536
- Mean = 28.760 meters (94.357 feet), Standard Deviation = 45.730 based on 126,134 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2009. Tringa ochropus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 February 2012. [back]