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Common Names in English:
Black Skimmer, cut-water, knifebill, scissorbill, sea dog, shearwater, storm gull
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Spanish:
1) Product-moment (Pearson's) correlation
coefficient, expressing the degree
of association between two (linearly) related variables.
3) availability (the part of a fish population which lives in areas where it is susceptible to fishing during a given fishing season . This part receives recruits from or becomes mingled with the non-available part of the stock at other seasons , or in other years (Ricker, 1975). Fish become available through migration, movement in the water column , or growth)
3) intrinsic growth rate (how much a population can grow between successive time periods when not slowed down by competition . Often estimated with production models and plays an important role in evaluating the sustainability of different harvest levels and the capacity to recover after depletion ).
About 18 to 19 inches long, with a wingspan of 42 to 50 inches. Adults weigh about 12.3 ounces .
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 29 meters (95 feet).
List of Habitats
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.2 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
- 9.3 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
- 9.4 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
- 9.5 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
- 9.7 Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
- 9.9 Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
- 9.10 Marine Neritic - Estuaries
- 12 Marine Intertidal
- 12.2 Marine Intertidal - Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars , Spits , Etc
- 12.3 Marine Intertidal - Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches
- 12.4 Marine Intertidal - Mud Flats and Salt Flats
- 12.5 Marine Intertidal - Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses)
- 13 Marine Coastal/Supratidal
- 13.4 Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes
- 13.5 Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Freshwater Lakes [more info]
The breeding season begins in early May and lasts through mid-August. Skimmers nest on beaches or sandy islands. The nest is a scrape created by both the male and female. The female lays 3-5 (usually 4) eggs that both adults incubate for 21-23 days. The young are semi-precocial and are cared for by both adults for 23-25 days after they hatch . The young have mandibles of equal length when they are young, which helps them pick up insects and food from the adults. The young gain their unequal mandible length when they are old enough to forage on their own.
- Clutch Size: 2-5
- Length of Incubation : 21-23 days
- Days to Fledge : 23-25
- Number of Broods: 1
In winter, most of this bird's time is spent resting on the beaches of the coast or skimming over the water. When a food item is found, the Black Skimmer "nods" its head to close the prey in its bill. When a young Black Skimmer is frightened, it may dig a small shallow depression in the sand , which it hides in, kicking sand up over its back to camouflage itself.
- Kingdom: Animalia () - animals
Rynchops nigra • Rynchops nigra Linnaeus, 1758
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 20-Aug-1999
The Black Skimmer is the only bird species in the United States that has a larger lower mandible than upper mandible.
Members of the genus Rynchops
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species and subspecies in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
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- Beached marine birds and mammals of the North American West Coast: a manual for their census and identification / by David G. Ainley. .. [et al.] Pt. Reyes Bird Observatory; with drawings by Helen C. Strong; performed for National Coastal Ecosystems Team, Office of Biological Services, Fish and Wildlife Service [Washington, D.C.]: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.,  url p. 147.
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- Memoirs of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 13 1984 San Diego, Calif.: The Society, 1931-1989. url p. 273.
- Occasional papers of the Museum of Natural History, the University of Kansas. 1991 Lawrence, Kan.: The University, 1971-1994. url p. 8.
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- Shinnecock Inlet, New York, site investigation. by Gregory L. Williams, Andrew Morang, Linda Lillycrop; prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Vicksburg, Miss.: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 1998. url p. 6.
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- BirdLife International 2004. In IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded July 18, 2008.
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 09, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 10 providers.
- Hines, J. E., Gregory Gough, J. R. Sauer, et al. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
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- Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, and J. Fallon. 2005. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966 - 2004. Version 2005.2. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD
- Sauer, J. R., S. Schwartz, and B. Hoover. 1996. The Christmas Bird Count Home Page. Version 95.1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 09, 2008:
- Avian Knowledge Network: eBird
- Avian Knowledge Network: Great Backyard Bird Count
- Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds (Aves)
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Bird Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Bay of Fundy Species List (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: SEAMAP - marine mammals, birds and turtles
- New Brunswick Museum: NBM birds
- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History: Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- Senckenberg: Collection Aves (spirit preserved)
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: CNAV/Coleccion Nacional de Aves
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ): Bird specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8311
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-176963
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2482044
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 554447
- IUCN ID: 240276
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNNM14010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 217