Common Names in English:
'The Lycaenidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Worldwide in distribution, this family
has approximately 4,700 species that are unevenly distributed. Coppers are especially dominant in north temperate regions
, blues are richest
in the Old World tropics and north temperate
zones, and hairstreaks are particularly abundant in New World tropics. The adults
are typically small to tiny and often brilliantly colored--iridescent blues, bright reds, and oranges. Adults of both sexes have three pairs of walking legs
, though most males have fused segments in their front legs. Most adults visit flowers for nectar, but some harvesters feed
on wooly aphid honeydew and some hairstreaks feed on aphid honeydew or bird droppings. Females lay
urchin shaped eggs
on host leaves or flower buds; the resulting caterpillars are typically slug-shaped. In many species, caterpillars depend on ants
for protection, so caterpillars produce
sugary secretions that are collected by the ants. Most species overwinter in either the egg or pupal stage.
Blues are tiny to small butterflies of the Family Lycaenidae. Distributed worldwide, they are most diverse in Southeast Asia, tropical Africa, and northern temperate regions . Most of the nearly 50 North American species are found in the west. Adult males are predominantly blue above, due to reflected light rather than pigmentation . Some males and most females are largely brown above. Below, wings of both sexes are usually gray-white with black spots or streaks. Adults in some genera (Euphilotes, Lycaeides, Plebulina, and Icaricia) have more or less prominent orange submarginal bands on their hindwings . Most adults are found near their host plants , and they do not fly long distances , though some tropical and subtropical species undertake long migrations. Adults visit flowers for nectar. Males frequent moist sand and mud , and females lay eggs singly on host plant leaves or flowers. As caterpillars, they secrete sugary secretions that attract ants , and caterpillars of some species are raised in ant nests. Blues usually overwinter in the pupal stage.
Biome: Terrestrial .
The Chalkhill Blue occurs on calcareous
soil in dry and flower-rich
places with a short vegetation. They seem to prefer sheltered places.
Sometimes, populations can be extremely large which is especially
obvious in the late afternoon when the butterflies come together
to roost. Hundreds
of butterflies can be seen, their heads
downwards into the vegetation, wings
upright, the light-coloured
underwings gleaming in the evening sun. Horseshoe Vetch (Hippocrepis
comosa) is its only foodplant, the female laying
on the leaves. The eggs hibernate. The caterpillars are attended
of the genera Myrmica,
Aphaenogaster and Tapinoma.
The Chalkhill Blue pupates in the litter
layer. It usually only has
one generation a year. Habitats
: dry calcareous grasslands and steppes
(35%), dry siliceous
grasslands (13%), mesophile grasslands (13%),
grasslands (5%), broad-leaved
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.4 Shrubland - Temperate
- 3.8 Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
- 4 Grassland
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Members of the genus Polyommatus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 17 species and subspecies in this genus:
P. aroaniensis (Grecian Anomalous Blue) · P. caelestissimus (Azure Chalkhill Blue) · P. coridon (Chalkhill Blue) · P. dama (Mesopotamian Blue) · P. dolus (Furry Blue) · P. eroides (False Eros Blue) · P. fabressei (Oberth?rs Anomalous Blue) · P. fulgens (Catalonian Furry Blue) · P. galloi (Higgin's Anomalous Blue) · P. golgus (Sierra Nevada Blue) · P. hispanus (Provence Chalkhill Blue) · P. humedasae (Piedmont Anomalous Blue) · P. icarus (Common Blue) · P. icarus icarus (Common Blue) · P. nephohiptamenos (Higginss Anomalous Blue) · P. nivescens (Mother-Of-Pearl Blue) · P. violetae (Andalusian Anomalous Blue)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Bibliography (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) / Charles A. Bridges. Urbana, Ill.: C.A. Bridges, c1993. url p. 428.
- Catalogue of the family-group, genus-group and species-group names of the Riodinidae & Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) of the world / Charles A. Bridges. Urbana, Ill.: C.A. Bridges, c1994. url p. 37, p. 85.
- Proceedings and transactions of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London: The Society. url p. 33, p. 33, p. 35, p. 37, p. 38, p. 47.
- Proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London [Eng]: South London Entomological and Natural history Society, [1897-1933] url p. 117, p. 124, p. 132, p. 53, p. 55, p. 78, p. 83, p. 84, p. 88, p. 97.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url , p. 103, p. 139, p. 140, p. 161, p. 21, p. 31, p. 33, p. 37, p. 62, p. 8, p. 99.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 30, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. 2010. Polyommatus coridon. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 04February2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 01, 2007:
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- Nicolaus Copernicus University of Torun, The Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Poland
- SysTax, Lobbecke Museum Dusseldorf
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5645779
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 16080325
- IUCN ID: 234626
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2410409
- http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/taxonomy?f=16&sci=Lycaenidae&com=Gossamer-wing Butterflies [back]
- http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Plebulina&search=Search [back]
- van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. 2010. Polyommatus coridon. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]