Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Chevalier combattant, Combatant Vari, combatant variÃ©, combatant varié, Combattant varié
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Swedish:
Adult : Bill: Shape : heavy Body: Mantle: buff-edged feathers Rump : dark center Shape: thickset.Adult Female: Bill: Shape: heavy Body: Mantle: buff-edged feathers Rump: dark center Shape: thickset.Adult Female Breeding Season : Bill: black with purple or yellow base Shape: heavy Neck: Foreneck: pale grayish-buff marked with dusky Throat : whitish Body: Belly: white Breast: bright buff, mottled with dusky Mantle: buff-edged feathers Rump: sides white Shape: thickset Upperparts: dark brown, feathers edged with golden-buff Legs : Leg Color: pink to red-orange Wings : Remiges : dusky Tail: gray-brown.Adult Female Summer: Body: Breast: mottled black Flanks: mottled black Upperparts: grayish brown mottled black with buff white edging.Adult Male: Bill: Shape: heavy Body: Mantle: buff-edged feathers Rump: dark center Shape: thickset.Adult Male Breeding Season: Head : conspicuous , variously colored head-tufts Bill: black with purple or yellow base Shape: heavy Neck: Foreneck: pale grayish-buff marked with dusky Throat: whitish Body: Belly: white Breast: pale grayish-buff marked with dusky Mantle: buff-edged feathers Rump: sides white Shape: thickset Upperparts: gray-brown, feathers with whitish margins Legs: Leg Color: pink to red-orange Wings: Remiges: dusky Tail: gray-brown.Adult Male Summer: Head: Size: small Face : Wattles: red, greenish, yellowish, or orange facial warts and wattles Bill: Curvature: slightly decurved Length : short Body: Mantle: chestnut to black Shape: plump Upperparts: white with multicolored barring Legs: Leg Color: yellow, orange, or red Wings: Tertial Stripe : chestnut to black.Adult Winter: Bill: black with purple or yellow base Shape: heavy Neck: Foreneck: pale grayish-buff marked with dusky Throat: whitish Body: Belly: white Breast: pale grayish-buff marked with dusky Mantle: buff-edged feathers Rump: sides white Shape: thickset Upperparts: gray-brown, feathers with whitish margins Legs: Leg Color: pink to red-orange Wings: Remiges: dusky Tail: gray-brown.Immature: Bill: black with purple or yellow base Shape: heavy Neck: Foreneck: pale grayish-buff marked with dusky Throat: whitish Body: Belly: white Breast: pale grayish-buff marked with dusky Mantle: buff-edged feathers Rump: sides white Shape: thickset Upperparts: gray-brown, feathers with whitish margins Legs: Leg Color: green to brown Wings: Remiges: dusky Tail: gray-brown.
About 9 to 12.5 inches long, with a wingspan of 16 to 25 inches. Adults weigh about 6 ounces .
Vegetation: freshwater marshes, saltwater and brackish marshes, arid lowland scrubs, pastures and agricultural lands • Sensitivity to Disturbance: Low
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 979 meters (3,212 feet).
This species is fully migratory and travels on a broad front across
Europe (del Hoyo et al.
1996). It breeds
from May to August (Hayman
et al. 1986) with males gathering in suitable lekking areas (del
Hoyo et al. 1996, Flint et al. 1984) and females nesting solitarily
or in semi-colonial groups (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species departs
the breeding grounds
between late-June and August, returning from
from March to mid-May (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
The species migrates in large flocks of hundreds
or thousands of
individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and forms huge dense groups on
its wintering grounds (Hayman et al. 1986). The species inhabits
from the coast to the Arctic
et al. 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996) during the breeding season
, lekking and nesting areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
It shows a preference for dry mounds and slopes
with low willow Salix
birch Betula spp. as lekking areas (del Hoyo et al.
1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), and dry patches of tall sedge as nesting
sites (Snow and Perrins 1998). Suitable foraging habitats include
(Snow and Perrins 1998), coastal saltmarshes
(Johnsgard et al. 1981) and extensive lowland freshwater
such as small shallow lakes
vegetation (Johnsgard et
al. 1981, Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins
1998), grassy hummocky marshes (Johnsgard et al. 1981, Hayman et
al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), and damp
swampy grasslands (Johnsgard et al. 1981, Hayman et al. 1986, del
Hoyo et al. 1996), with shallow pools
or ditches (del Hoyo et al.
1996). During the non-breeding season
the species occupies the muddy
, saline and alkaline
, pools, rivers
marshes and food-plains (del Hoyo et al. 1996), as well as freshly
mown or grazed short-sward grasslands (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo
et al. 1996) and wheat- or rice-fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996), usually
roosting at night in the shallow waters of lake shores (del Hoyo
et al. 1996). The species rarely utilises intertidal habitats (Hayman
et al. 1986) but may frequent tidal
(del Hoyo et al. 1996). During the breeding season the species's
consists almost entirely of adult
and larval terrestrial
insects such as Coleoptera and Diptera (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
and during the winter the species takes insects (e.g.
caddisflies, water-bugs, mayflies and grasshoppers), small crustaceans,
spiders, small molluscs
, annelid worms, frogs
, small fish and the
seeds of rice and other cereals, sedges, grasses and aquatic plants
(del Hoyo et al. 1996). The nest
is a shallow scrape (del Hoyo et
al. 1996) concealed in marsh
vegetation or meadow grass
et al. 1996) on damp ground (Johnsgard et al. 1981) usually more
than 100 m
away from the nearest lek
site (Johnsgard et al. 1981).
The species nests solitarily or semi-colonially, neighbouring nests
occasionally only a few metres
apart (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Management
information Intensive grazing of grassland (> 1 cow
was found to attract a higher abundance
of this species in Hungary
(Baldi et al. 2005)..
List of Habitats:
- 4 Grassland
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate
- 4.6 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.6 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 5.8 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.10 Marine Neritic - Estuaries
- 12 Marine Intertidal
- 12.5 Marine Intertidal - Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses)
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.1 Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
- 14.2 Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.7 Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels )
- 15.8 Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Huxley, 1867
- Huxley, 1867
- Beddard, 1898
- Strauch, 1978
- Series: href="http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/title/579 ()
- Parvorder: Scolopacida ()
- Infraorder: Scolopacides () - Strauch, 1978
- Suborder: Limicolae () - Beddard, 1898
- Order: Charadriiformes () - Huxley, 1867
- Superorder: Charadriimorphae () - Huxley, 1867
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758)
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 17-Oct-2001
Pectoral Sandpiper, Upland Sandpiper
Members of the genus Philomachus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species and subspecies in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A Directory of Neotropical Wetlands. IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 683.
- A List of British birds / London: John Van Voorst, 1883. url .
- A check list of North American birds. By Elliott Coues. Salem [Mass.]Naturalists' Agency, 1873 [i.e. 1874] url p. 87.
- A guide to the birds of Nepal Christopher Helm (Publishers) Ltd. url p. 150.
- A hand-list of genera and species of birds of the Indian empire, by E. C. Stuart Baker. .. Bombay, Printed by order of the committee of the Bombay natural history society url p. 218.
- A handbook to the birds of British Bermah, including those found in the adjoining state of Karennee, by Eugene W. Oates. .. London, R.H. Porter, 1883. url , .
- A history of British birds, with coloured illustrations of their eggs. By Henry Seebohm. London, Pub. for the author by R. H. Porter [etc.]1883-85. url p. 113.
- A history of the birds of Ceylon / London: Published by the author, 1880 [i.e. 1878-1880] url p. 873.
- A history of the birds of Europe: including all the species inhabiting the western palaearctic region / London: Published by the Author, 1871-1881. url p. 87.
- A list of British birds / compiled by a committee of the British Ornithologists' Union. London: J. van Voorst, 1883. url p. 172.
- Abstract of the proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New York City, for the official year. . [New York]: The Society, [1889-1932] url p. 138.
- An ecological characterization of Coastal Maine (north and east of Cape Elizabeth) / Stewart I. Fefer and Patricia S. Schettig: principal investigators. Newton Corner, Mass.: Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region, 1980. url , p. 5.
- An environmental profile of the Black Sea Coast WCMC url p. 27, p. 34, p. 35, p. 36.
- Analysis and Synthesis of National Reports. Prepared by UNEP and CMS Secretariat CMS url p. 29.
- Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. New-York: 1824-1876. url p. 220, p. 294, p. 563.
- Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, -1965. url p. 103, p. 106, p. 139, p. 328, p. 582, p. 68, p. 87, p. 87, p. 94, p. 96, p. 99, p. 99.
- Annual report of the Commissioner of Fisheries to the Secretary of Commerce for the fiscal year ended. .. Washington: G.P.O., 1914-1940. url p. 106.
- Austral avian record; a scientific journal devoted primarily to the study of the Australian avifauna. London: Witherby. url p. 118.
- Aves / 1891 London: Printed by Taylor and Francis, 1891. url p. 142.
- Biodiversity trends and threats in Europe: development and test of a species trend indicator RIVM, UNEP-WCMC url p. 45, p. 46.
- Birds in Kansas / Max C. Thompson & Charles Ely. 1 Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History: c1989- url p. 262, p. 401, p. xiii.
- Birds of Darjeeling and India, by L.J. Mackintosh. Calcutta, Printed by J.N. Banerjee & son, 1915. url .
- Birds of Massachusetts [by] J.A. Allen. [n.p.]1864-1886. url p. 131.
- Birds of Massachusetts and other New England states / [Norwood, Ma.: Printed by Berwick and Smith Company], 1925-1929 url , p. 448.
- Birds of the Chukchi Peninsula and Wrangel Island = (Ptitsy Chukotskogo poluostrova i ostrova Vrangelya) / L.A. Portenko; translated from Russian [by P.M. Rao]. New Delhi: Published for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., by Amerind Pub. Co., 1981- url p. 319, p. 328, p. 340.
- Birds of the Colorado valley. .. scientific and popular information concerning North American ornithology. Washington, Gov't print. off., 1878. url p. 736.
- Birds. By Eugene W. Oates. London: Taylor and Francis; [etc., etc.], 1889-98. url p. 268.
- Birds. London, Taylor and Francis, 1889-1898. url .
- British birds. London, Witherby & Co. url p. 118, p. 265, p. 273, p. 3, p. 86.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 224, p. 3, p. 32, p. 41, p. 410, p. 49, p. 61.
- Bulletin / Peabody Museum of Natural History. 1972 New Haven: Peabody Museum of Natural History, url p. 132, p. 141, fig. 22.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1950-1977. url p. 214, p. 229, p. 243.
- Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Salem, Mass., Essex Institute. url p. 24.
- Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 101 1948 Cambridge, Mass.: The Museum, 1863- url p. 130, p. 234, p. 433.
- Bulletin. Salem, Mass. url p. 158, p. 24, p. 37.
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url p. 123, p. 255, p. 95.
- Cassell's book of birds: From the text of Dr. Brehm / London, Cassell, Petter and Galpin, [1875?] url p. 311, p. 39.
- Catalogue of British Birds in the Collection of the British Museum / by G.R. Gray. London, 1863. url p. 9.
- Catalogue of British birds in the collection of the British Museum. London, Printed by order of the trustees, 1863. url .
- Catalogue of North American birds, chiefly in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1859. url .
- Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field Museum of Natural History. Charles E. Hellmayr, Boardman Conover. 13 1948 Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1948. url p. 208.
- Catalogue of birds, eggs and nests. Museum Greene Smith, Peterboro, N.Y., July 11, 1880. [s.l., s.n.], 1881 url p. 106.
- Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. London, 1874-98. url p. 502, p. 503.
- Catalogue of the birds in the Museum Asiatic Society / by Edward Blyth. Published by order of the society. Calcutta: J. Thomas, 1849. url p. 270.
- Catalogue of the specimens and drawings of mammalia and birds of Nepal and Thibet. Presented by B.H. Hodgson to the British Museum. London, By order of the Trustees, 1846. url p. 140.
- Check-list of North American birds / prepared by a committee of the American ornithologists' union. Lancaster, Pa.: The Union, 1931. url p. 125.
- Check-list of North American birds. [Ithaca, N.Y.]1957. url p. 207.
- Check-list of North American birds: the species of birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands / prepared by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature of the American Orni Lawrence, Kan.: American Ornithologists' Union, 1983. url p. 202, p. 801.
- Check-list of birds of the world. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1931-1987. url p. 288.
- Checklists for the CORINE Biotopes Programme and its application in the PHARE countries of Central and East Europe: including comparisons with relevant conventions and agreements on the conservation of European species and habitats EC url p. 100.
- Condition and doings of the Boston Society of Natural History as exhibited by the annual reports. Boston url p. 20.
- Directory of Wetlands of International Importance. IUCN url p. 141, p. 146, p. 157, p. 165, p. 196, p. 203, p. 213, p. 229, p. 236, p. 250, p. 304, p. 373, p. 390, p. 397, p. 41, p. 421, p. 446, p. 464, p. 489, p. 490, p. 491, p. 515, p. 527, p. 533, p. 537, p. 558, p. 57, p. 582, p. 583, p. 586, p. 588, p. 589, p. 590, p. 592, p. 597, p. 599, p. 603, p. 606, p. 609, p. 613, p. 63, p. 630, p. 635, p. 637, p. 638, p. 654, p. 669, p. 681.
- Distributional notes on Nepal birds [by] Robert L. Fleming and Melvin A. Traylor. 53 1968 [Chicago]Field Museum of Natural History, 1968. url p. 158.
- Experimental studies on Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich) a fluke from birds and mammals. Urbana, Ill., The University of Illinois, 1937 url p. 70, p. 96.
- Field ornithology. Comprising a manual of instruction for procuring, preparing and preserving birds, and a check list of North American birds Salem [Mass.]Naturalists' Agency, 1874 url p. 87.
- Fishery circular / U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries. [Washington]: The Bureau, 1931-1939. url p. 50.
- "Forest and Stream" bird notes. An index and summary of all the ornithological matter contained in "Forest and Stream." Vols. I-XII. New York, Forest and Stream Publishing Co., 1881. url .
- Game, shore, and water birds of India / Calcutta: Thacker, Spink; 1888 url p. 70.
- Handbook to the birds of the Bombay presidency, by Lieut. H. Edwin Barnes. .. Calcutta, The Calcutta Central Press, 1885. url , , , , p. 352, p. 352.
- IUCN Directory of Afrotropical Protected Areas IUCN, UNEP url p. 1028, p. 524.
- Ibis. [London]Published for the British Ornithologists' Union by Academic Press. url p. 192, p. 241, p. 256, p. 277, p. 283, p. 327, p. 34, p. 350, p. 388, p. 401, p. 426, p. 514, p. 562, p. 69, p. 709, p. 809.
- Journal and proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 4 1908 Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Bengal. url p. 62.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 10 1990 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 47, p. 51.
- Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society: official publication of the Coryndon Memorial Museum (Museum Trustees of Kenya). Nairobi, Kenya: The Museum, 1942- url p. 166.
- Key to North American birds; containing a concise account of every species of living and fossil bird at present known from the continent north of the Mexican and United States boundary. Illustrated by 6 steel plates and upwards o New York, Dodd and Mead; [etc., etc., ]1872. url .
- Life and letters of Alexander Goodman More, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., with selections from his zoological and botanical writings; ed. by C.B. Moffat, B.A., with a preface by Frances M. More. Dublin, Hodges, Figgis & co. (ltd.)1898. url p. 450.
- List of the specimens of the British animals in the collection of the British Museum / [edited by J.E. Gray] LondonPrinted by order of the Trustees1852- url p. 49.
- Madagascar: an environmental profile IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 176.
- Manual of the vertebrates of the northern United States, including the district east of the Mississippi River, and north of North Carolina and Tennessee, exclusive of marine species. Chicago, Jansen, McClurg, 1880[c1878] url .
- Matabele land and the Victoria Falls: a naturalist's wanderings in the interior of South Africa, from the letters and journals of the late Frank Oates / edited by C.G. Oates. London: C.K. Paul, 1881. url p. 325.
- Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 12 1884 Cambridge [Mass.]: The Museum, 1876-1940. url fig. in text, page 292.
- Memoirs of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 13 1984 San Diego, Calif.: The Society, 1931-1989. url p. 242, p. 249, p. 273.
- Natural history. A manual of zoölogy for schools, colleges, and the general reader New York, Scribner & co., 1867 url p. 261.
- Natural history: a manual of zoology for schools, colleges, and the general reader / by Sanborn Tenney. New York: Charles Scribner & Co., 1865. url p. 261.
- Naturalist's guide to the Americas, prepared by the Committee on the Preservation of Natural Conditions of the Ecological Society of America, with assistance from numerous organizations and individuals, assembled and edited by chairman, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1926. url p. 752, p. 752.
- North American fauna. Washington: Fish and Wildlife Service; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U. S. Govt. Print. Off. url p. 154, p. 154, p. 251, p. 389, p. 389, p. 397, p. 397, p. 77.
- Notes on the birds of Damara Land and the adjacent countries of South-west Africa. London, J. van Voorst, 1872. url .
- Occasional papers of the Museum of Natural History, the University of Kansas. 1982 Lawrence, Kan.: The University, 1971-1994. url p. 6.
- On the distribution of birds in Great Britain, during the nesting season / Alexander G. More. [London: British Ornithologists' Union, 1865]. url p. 63.
- Ornithologisches Centralblatt. Leipzig. url p. 35.
- Our northern and eastern birds. Containing descriptions of the birds of the northern and eastern states and British provinces; together with a history of their habits, times of arrival and departure, their distribution, food, song, New York, R. Worthington, 1883. url .
- Our northern and eastern birds: containing descriptions of the birds of the northern and eastern states and British provinces; together with a history of their habits, times of arrival and departure, their distribution, food, song, by Edward A. Samuels; with a supplement from Holder's "American fauna." New York: R. Worthington, 1883. url p. 582.
- Proceedings and transactions of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London: The Society. url p. 55.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 197, p. 225, p. 31, p. 8, p. 981.
- Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. Boston [etc.]Boston Society of Natural History. url p. 178.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 211, p. 698.
- Proceedings of the Essex Institute. Salem: Essex Institute Press. url , p. 296.
- Proceedings of the International Ornithological Congress. [Canberra, etc.]Australian Academy of Science [etc.] url p. 578.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url p. 388, p. 410.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 24, p. 5, p. 515, p. 573, p. 681.
- Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. London: Academic Press, [etc.], 1833-1965. url p. 234, p. 506, p. 583.
- Proceedings. Salem, Mass.(1856-70) url p. 296.
- Protected Landscapes: experience around the world. Prepared for the International Symposium on Protected Landscapes, Grange-over-Sands, England 5-10 October 1987 IUCN url p. 101.
- Quarterly bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club. Cambridge, Mass.: The Club, . url p. 99.
- Remarks on the Ornithology of Northern Norway / by Robert Collett. Christiania: [s.n.], 1872. url p. 80.
- Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Columbus, Nevins & Myers, state printers, 1873-93. url , , .
- Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents for the year ending June 30. .. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1933-1965. url p. 106, p. 139, p. 72, p. 82, p. 96, p. 99.
- Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries for the fiscal year. .. with appendixes Washington: G.P.O., 1914- url p. 106.
- Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Washington, A. O. P. Nicholson, printer [etc.]1855-60. url .
- Sea-birds: an introduction to the natural history of the sea-birds of the North Atlantic / by James Fisher and R. M. Lockley. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1954. url p. 316.
- Sex and internal secretions. Contributors: A. Albert [and others] Foreword by George W. Corner. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1961. url p. 1096.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 2 1862 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 14.
- Special scientific report--wildlife / U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service, 1949- url p. 119, p. 159, p. 258, p. 281, p. 298, p. 318, p. 39, p. 44, p. 447, p. 643, p. 79, p. 96.
- Stray feathers. Journal of ornithology for India and its dependencies. Calcutta: s.n., 1872-1899. url p. 127, p. 17, p. 239, p. 396, p. 465.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 15.
- The Auk. Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union, etc., 1884- url p. 336, p. 405.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 120, p. 168, p. 309, p. 47.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url , p. 865.
- The Marine Mammal Commission compendium of selected treaties, international agreements, and other relevant documents on marine resources, wildlife, and the environment / compiled by Richard L. Wallace. Washington, D.C.: The Commission; 1994 url p. 3128, p. 3482.
- The Scottish naturalist. Arbroath [etc.]T. Buncle & Co. [etc.] url p. 135, p. 136.
- The avifauna of British India and its dependencies: a systematic account, with descriptions of all the known species of birds inhabiting British India, observations on their habits, nidification, &c., tables of their geographical distribution in Persia by James A. Murray. London: Trübner, 1888-1890. url p. 616, p. 798.
- The birds of India: being a natural history of all the birds known to inhabit continental India, with descriptions of the species, genera, families, tribes, and orders, and a brief notice of such families as are not foun Calcutta: Printed for the Author by the Military Orphan Press. .., 1862-1864. url , p. 687.
- The birds of New England / by Edward A. Samuels. Boston: Noyes, Holmes, 1870, c1867. url p. 582.
- The birds of New England and adjacent states: . .. arranged by a long-approved classification and nomenclature. .. with illustrations of many species of the birds, accurate figures of their nests and eggs / Boston: Noyes, Holmes, and Co., 1875. url p. 582.
- The birds of New Englandand adjacent states: containing descriptions of the birds of New England. .. together with a history of their habitats. ..; with illustrations of many species of the birds, and accurate figures of their eggs / by Edward A. Samuels. Boston: Noyes, Holmes, 1870 [c1867] url p. 582.
- The birds of North America: one hundred and nineteen artistic colored plates representing the different species and varieties drawn and colored from nature: including a copious text giving a popular account of their habits and 1903 New York: Published under the auspices of the Natural Science Association of America, 1903. url , p. 161.
- The birds of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the higher groups, genera, species, and subspecies of birds known to occur in North America, from the Arctic lands to the Isthmus of Panama, the West Indies and other island Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1901- url , .
- The birds of South Africa, by Arthur C. Stark. .. London: R. H. Porter, 1900-1906. url p. 402.
- The birds of eastern North America: with original descriptions of all the species which occur east of the Mississippi River, between the Arctic circle and the Gulf of Mexico, with full notes upon their habits, etc., / by C.J. Maynard... Newtonville, Mass.: C.J. Maynard & co., 1896. url p. 203.
- The edible and game birds of British India, with its dependencies and Ceylon. With woodcuts, lithographs, and coloured illustrations, by James A. Murray. .. Bombay, Education Society's Press, 1889. url p. 135.
- The faunal connections between Europe and North America. New York, Wiley url p. 336.
- The journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta: Bishop's College Press, 1832-1936 url p. 486.
- The museum of natural history, with introductory essay on the natural history of the primeval world: being a popular account of the structure, habits, and classification of the various departments of the animal kingdom: quadruped, birds, reptiles, fishes, shells, and insects, including the insects de by Sir John Richardson, William S. Dallas, T. Spencer Cobbold, and William Baird & Adam White. London: Mackenzie, [1859-62?] url p. 442.
- The natural history of the USSR / Algirdas Knystautas; foreword by Vladimir Flint; [translation, John S. Scott]. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987. url p. 199, p. 219.
- The naturalist in Australia, London, Chapman & Hall, 1897. url .
- The popular natural history / New York, Burt Co.[1884?] url .
- The vertebrate zoology of Sind: a systematic account. .. / by James A. Murray. London: Richardson, 1884. url p. 248, p. 422.
- Treaties and other international agreements on fisheries, oceanographic resources, and wildlife to which the United States is party / prepared at the request of Hon. Warren G. Magnuson for the use of the Committee on Commerce, United States Senate, by the Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1974. url p. 823.
- Vertebrate reproductive cycles. London, Methuen; url p. 110.
- Water Birds on the Edge: first circumpolar assessment of climate chage impact of Arctic breeding water birds. WCMC Biodiversity Series 11 UNEP-WCMC url p. 14.
- Zoogeography. A symposium presented on August 26-27, 1957 [under the prime auspices of the Pacific Section of the Society of Systematic Zoology] at the Stanford University joint meeting of the American Institute of Washington, 1958. url p. 502.
- Zoologist. London.1843-1916 url p. 8941.
- BirdLife International 2009. Philomachus pugnax. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 03February2012.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, North West Territories and Nunavut Bird Checklist, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- New Brunswick Museum, NBM birds
- Provider, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums
- Senckenberg, Collection Aves
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Western Palearctic migrants in continental Africa
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- , Bird specimens
- Upper Silesian Museum, Bytom, Upper Silesian Museum, Bird Observations
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8169
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-176695
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3085810
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 176695
- IUCN ID: 231949
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNNF15010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 6810
- Standard Deviation = 536.560 based on 5,744 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2009. Philomachus pugnax. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 February 2012. [back]