- Native to North America, it was imported into wildfowl collections in the UK in the 1940s, and subsequently escaped to form a feral population from which birds are now spreading to Spain where they threaten the globally endangered white-headed duck with extinction through introgressive hybridisation and competition . A regional trial of control measures, in which over 2,000 birds have been controlled, is ongoing in the UK. Control programs are also in place in France, Spain and Portugal, and are urgently needed in The Netherlands and Belgium. Ruddy Ducks are relatively easy to shoot as they tend not to leave water-bodies during control activities.
- The courtship display of the Ruddy Duck is a striking performance on the part of the male.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Basque:
Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Rosse Stekelstaart, Rosse Stekelstaarteend, Rosse sterkelstaart
Common Names in English:
batter-scoot, Blackjack, blatherskite, bluebill, booby, booby coot, bristle-tail, broad-billed dipper, Broadbill, brown diving teal, bullneck, bumblebee duck, butterball, butterduck, cock-tail, creek cootdapper, daub duck, deaf duck, dinky, dip-tail, dip-tailed diver, Dipper, diver, dopper, dumb-bird, dumpling duck, dun-bird, dun-diver, fool duck, god-damn, gray teal, hard-head, hard-headed broadbill, heavy-tailed coot, hickory-head, leather-back, light-wood knot, little soldier, mud-dipper, Noddy, North American ruddy duck, Northern ruddy duck, paddy, paddy-whack, Pintail, quill-tailed coot, roody, Rook, rudder bird, ruddy diver, Ruddy Duck, salt water teal, shot-pouch, sleepy brother, sleepy coot, sleepy dick, sleepy duck, sleepyhead, spine-tail duck, spoon-billed butterball, Spoonbill, sprig-tail, steel-head, stick-tail, stiff-tail, stiff-tailed wigeon, Stifftail, stub-and-twist, touch-head, water partridge, wigeon coot, wire-tail
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Faroese:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Ã©rismature rousse, Canard Roux, Erismature rouse, erismature rousse
Common Names in German:
Schwarzkopf-Ruderente, Schwarzkopfruderente, Scwartzkopf ruderente
Common Names in Haitian Creole French:
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Icelandic:
Common Names in Irish:
Common Names in Italian:
Gobbo della giamaica, Gobbo rugginoso americano
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Latin:
Erismatura jamaicensis, Oxyura jamaicensis
Common Names in Lithuanian:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Slovak:
Common Names in Slovenian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Malvas, Malvasía cabeciblanca, MalvasÌa Canela, MalvasÌa rojiza, Pato Malvasia De Cara Blanca, Pato tepalcate
Common Names in Spanish (Argentine):
Pato Zambullidor Grande
Common Names in Spanish (Cuba):
Common Names in Spanish (Dominican Republic):
Common Names in Spanish (Mexico):
Common Names in Spanish (Nicaragua):
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Turkish:
Kara Basli Dikkuyruk
Common Names in Welsh:
Adult Female: Face : Cheeks: faint line below eye Bill: blackish gray Neck: Throat : lighter brown.Adult Male: Head : Cap: blackish Color: black Face: Cheeks: white Bill: blue Body: Belly: whitish with light brown barring Color: dark chestnut Tail: black Length : long.
male alternate: Alternate plumage worn in Spring
· Brilliant blue bill · Black crown and nape ·
Rust-red lower neck, breast, back and body · White face
Adult male basic(eclipse): Eclipse plumage worn Fall-Winter · Dark gray bill · Dark cap · Face white, as in alternate plumage · Gray brown neck and body plumage
Adult female: Like winter male, but with dusky horizontal stripe crossing pale gray cheek patch
About 14 to 16 inches long, with a wingspan of 21 to 24 inches. Adults weigh about 20.8 ounces . Weight : female 550g, male 600g.
Marshes, lakes and coastal areas; when not breeding, on sheltered brackish and marine coastal areas as well as lakes and rivers (Temperate Zone). Nests on freshwater marshes, sloughs , lakes, and ponds , in areas where open water is bordered by dense aquatic vegetation. Nest is a floating structure of marsh plants hidden by growing plants. Often lays eggs in nests of other waterfowl species. May nest at potholes of less than an acre (InfoNatura, 2004).
Vegetation: freshwater lakes and ponds • Maximum Elevation: 2,200 meters • Foraging Strata: Water • Center of Abundance: Lower tropical: lowlands, lower than 500 m.; tropics. • Sensitivity to Disturbance: Medium
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,701 meters (0 to 15,423 feet).
The species is partly migratory; North American breeders tend to
depart from breeding grounds
to winter further south or near the
coast, whereas other populations are sedentary
or make only short-distance
, and marshes with emergent
vegetation and open water
are preferred breeding habitats
outside the breeding season
the species can also be found on larger
and estuaries (Carboneras 1992)..
List of Habitats:
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps, Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 5.14 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.10 Marine Neritic - Estuaries
- 13 Marine Coastal/Supratidal
- 13.4 Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes [more info]
Seasonal - from April to August. Timing of breeding controlled by
physiological readiness modified by food availability, stability
of water levels and available nesting cover
symmetrically either side of longest day. May dump eggs
breeding if conditions unsuitable. Breeding strategy mixture of monogamy,
.2-3 young per female per year. Can relay
up to 4 times per season if eggs lost. Usually only one brood per
year, but can double
Produces large eggs to maximise survival of large nidifugous young. Also lays eggs in the nests of other waterbirds. Breed first at one year old. Young creche after females desert chicks at only half grown. Arrive on breeding grounds in April, nest building mainly in May, incubation in June, most broods hatch in July. Birds leave breeding areas in August/September. In USA, age composition in autumn estimated at 1:1 adults :juveniles. Sex ratio male biased (c1 .1-1-2 males per female in late winter). Survival rates unknown, but simulation modelling for UK population assuming adult male, adult female and juvenile survival rates of 0.8, 0.7 and 0.6, respectively, produced observed population trend. Maximum lifespan of wild ringed individuals in USA 13 years, but most reported dead less than 2 years after ringing (US Dept. Interior unpubl. data ); 18 captive birds had mean lifespan of 2.4 years.
- Clutch Size: 5-15
- Length of Incubation: 23-26 days
- Days to Fledge : 42-48
- Number of Broods: 1, 2 in south
- Breeding Habitat: Wetland-open water
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Sibley et al., 1988
- Wagler, 1831
- Suborder: Anseres () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Wagler, 1831
- Order: Anseriformes () - Wagler, 1831
- Superorder: Galloanserimorphae () - Sibley et al., 1988
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789) • Oxyura jamaicensis (J. F. Gmelin, 1789)
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 23-Jan-2007
Masked Duck, Cinnamon Teal
Members of the genus Oxyura
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species and subspecies in this genus:
O. australis (Australian Blue-Billed Duck) · O. dominica (St. Domingo Duck) · O. ferruginea (Andean Duck) · O. ferruginea ferruginea (Andean Duck) · O. jamaicensis (North American Ruddy Duck) · O. jamaicensis andina (Colombian Ruddy Duck) · O. jamaicensis jamaicensis (North American Ruddy Duck) · O. jamaicensis rubida (Ruddy Duck) · O. leucocephala (White-Headed Duck) · O. maccoa (Maccoa Duck) · O. vittata (Lack Duck)
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- Avian Knowledge Network: Project FeederWatch
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 11617
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-714751
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2494622
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 175175
- IUCN ID: 229271
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNJB22010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 17571
- Mean = 938.420 meters (3,078.806 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,051.890 based on 6,508 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
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