Common Names in English:
Itys Bush Brown
'The Nymphalidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family
are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults
vary in size from small to large, and their front legs
are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing
is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins
(anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent
colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed
, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit
behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying
varies widely, as some species lay eggs
in clustsers, others in columns, and others singly. Caterpillar appearance
and behavior vary widely. Brushfoots overwinter
as larvae or adults.
The Satyrinae are medium-sized species of the Family Nymphalidae. Members of this worldwide group are most often brown with one or more marginal eyespots. Males often have visible patches of specialized scales on the fore- or hindwings . Adults have short proboscises and rarely visit flowers, feeding instead on rotting fruit, animal droppings, or sap flows . Nearly all species feed on grasses and grasslike plants , including bamboos , rushes, and sedges. Adults usually perch with their wings closed , but open them wide when basking early in the morning or during cloudy weather. Most species have local colonies and are not migratory. Males patrol when searching for mates, flying in characteristic slow, skipping flight. Eggs are laid singly on the host leaves or stems, and caterpillars feed within shelters of several leaves sewn together with silk . Development from egg to adult can take two years in arctic and alpine species, and it is synchronized in some species. In those species, adult butterflies are only found every other year. Satyrinae typically overwinter as partially grown caterpillars.
Biome: Terrestrial .
This species frequents secondary rainforest as well as areas of advanced
regrowth and grassy places along the margins
. It flies
weakly between undergrowth and grass
in open areas and in
to a hight of 15 m
in virgin and disturbed
(Fermon et al.
are more active
late in the afternoon. Larvae feed
psilopodium (Igarashi and Fukuda 2000)..
List of Habitats :
- 1 Forest
- 1.6 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
- 1.8 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.6 Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Nominate itys is restricted to the north of Sulawesi; M. i. remulina Fruhstorfer, 1897, occurs on the remainder of the island; M. i. sulensis Grose Smith & Kirby, 1896, is restricted to Kep. Sula.
Members of the genus Mycalesis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 3 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- Fermon, H., Waltert, M., Vane-Wright, R. I. and Mhulenberg, M. 2005. Forest use and vertical stratification in fruit-feeding butterflies of Sulawesi, Indonesia: impacts for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 333-350.
- IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
- Igarashi, S. and Fukuda, H. 2000. The life histories of Asian butterflies. Tokyo.
- Winarni, N.L. and Jones, M. 2007. Community patterns of birds and butterflies in Lambusango forest, Buton, Southeast Sulawesi in 2006. Report to Lambusango Conservation Program.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Muller, C.J. & Tennent, W.J. 2011. Mycalesis itys. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 02February2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 7642065
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Lep-142903.0
- IUCN ID: 224807
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1550127
- http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/taxonomy?f=18&sci=Nymphalidae&com=Brush-footed Butterflies [back]
- http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Paramacera&search=Search [back]
- Muller, C.J. & Tennent, W.J. 2011. Mycalesis itys. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 February 2012. ... [back]