This pie chart shows the relative likelihood of observing particular other species commonly observed near Mobula mobular
These species are those which most commonly occur in our observation database near Mobula mobular. Observations favor some phyla over others. Typically Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa, and Arthropods are more common in the field than in our records.
The giant devilray occurs in offshore, deep waters and, occasionally, in shallow waters (Bradai and Capapé 2001) throughout the Mediterranean Sea, in waters ranging in depth from few tens of metres to several thousands (with the exception of the northern Adriatic) and possibly in the nearby North Atlantic. Outside the Mediterranean it occurs along the coast of Africa from Morocco to Senegal, the Canary Islands, Madeira, the Azores, Portugal, and as a vagrant, off southern Ireland (Notarbartolo di Sciara 1987). However, since expert examination is needed to distinguish M. mobular from M. japanica, a species known from the tropical Atlantic (Notarbartolo di Sciara 1987), past reports of giant devilrays from the Atlantic may have been due to incorrect identification of spinetail devilrays.
Algeria; Croatia; France; Greece; Israel; Italy; Malta; Spain; Tunisia
Like all mobulids, the giant devilray is an epipelagic batoid feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small schooling fishes, which are trapped on its specialised branchial filter plates. In the Mediterranean a likely important prey item for the giant devilray is the euphasiid shrimp Meganyctiphanes norveggica. Mobulids are aplacental viviparous matrotroph rays, in that the pups receive their nourishment from uterine milk secretion (Wourms 1977). They give birth to a single huge pup. A term embryo of M. mobular born from a specimen, caught in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea in late spring 1986 (Notarbartolo di Sciara and Serena, 1988), with a disc 1659 mm wide and a weight of 35 kg is the largest Mobula embryo on record (Notarbartolo di Sciara, 1987). It is not apparent from the literature whether M. mobular has a restricted reproductive season in the Mediterranean. Tortonese (1957) described a rather undeveloped embryo from a female caught in Palermo in September. The observations of Notarbartolo di Sciara and Serena (1988) suggest that in the northern Mediterranean the species gives birth in summer and that the pup could be up to 1,660 mm disc width at birth after 25 months of gestation (Serena 2000).
In sections below, we make some habitat inferences based on the known habitat preferences of those species most commonly associated with Mobula mobular.
boreal shrubland, cultivated areas, desert, thickets.
sandy areas, sandy soil, stony areas.
bays, coral reef, estuaries, lagoon, lakes, pelagic, ponds, rivers, shores.