Common Names in English:
Iberian Marbled White
'The Nymphalidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family
are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults
vary in size from small to large, and their front legs
are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing
is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins
(anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent
colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed
, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit
behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying
varies widely, as some species lay eggs
in clustsers, others in columns, and others singly. Caterpillar appearance
and behavior vary widely. Brushfoots overwinter
as larvae or adults.
The Satyrinae are medium-sized species of the Family Nymphalidae. Members of this worldwide group are most often brown with one or more marginal eyespots. Males often have visible patches of specialized scales on the fore- or hindwings . Adults have short proboscises and rarely visit flowers, feeding instead on rotting fruit, animal droppings, or sap flows . Nearly all species feed on grasses and grasslike plants , including bamboos , rushes, and sedges. Adults usually perch with their wings closed , but open them wide when basking early in the morning or during cloudy weather. Most species have local colonies and are not migratory. Males patrol when searching for mates, flying in characteristic slow, skipping flight. Eggs are laid singly on the host leaves or stems, and caterpillars feed within shelters of several leaves sewn together with silk . Development from egg to adult can take two years in arctic and alpine species, and it is synchronized in some species. In those species, adult butterflies are only found every other year. Satyrinae typically overwinter as partially grown caterpillars.
The Iberian Marbled
White occurs in flower-rich, dry to damp grasslands,
near dry scrub
and along woodland edges
and hedgerows. Grasses such
Meadow-grass (Poa annua),
Meadow Fescue (Festuca pratensis),
Brome (Bromus madritensis)
and Brachypodium retusum are
used as foodplants. This species is single-brooded and hibernates
as a caterpillar. Habitats
scrub (22%), dry calcareous
grasslands and steppes
(22%), scrub and grassland (11%), mesophile
grasslands (11%), broad-leaved evergreen woodland (11%), screes (11%),
, small woods
, bocage, parkland dehesa (11%). (Ref.
List of Habitats:
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.8 Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
- 6 Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs , mountain peaks)
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.4 Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Butterflies and Moths
- Infraorder: Heteroneura ()
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Melanargia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species and subspecies in this genus:
M. arge (Italian Marbled White) · M. galathea (Marbled White) · M. galathea galathea (Marbled White Butterfly) · M. lachesis (Iberian Marbled White) · M. larissa (Balkan Marbled White) · M. pherusa (Sicilian Marbled White) · M. russiae (Esper's Marbled White Butterfly) · M. russiae russiae (Esper's Marbled White Butterfly)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
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- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 305.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url p. 71.
- Museum bulletin / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 71.
- Proceedings and transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society. London, British Entomological and Natural History Society. url p. 29, p. 99.
- Proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London [Eng]: South London Entomological and Natural history Society, [1897-1933] url , p. 103, p. 141, p. 93.
- The Entomologist's monthly magazine. Oxford [etc.]Entomologist's Monthly Magazine Ltd. [etc.] url p. 174, p. 283.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 110, p. 2, p. 20, p. 254, p. 262, p. 277, p. 279, p. 281, p. 29, p. 3, p. 302, p. 305, p. 327, p. 335, p. 340, p. 344, p. 4, p. 46, p. 60, p. 62, p. 7, p. 72, p. 82, p. 83, p. 84, p. 97.
- The Entomologist. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., [1877- url , p. 113, p. 113, p. 121, p. 123, p. 124, p. 21, p. 214, p. 237, p. 244, p. 244, p. 258, p. 274, p. 274, p. 278, p. 279, p. 301, p. 330, p. 5, p. 5, p. 51, p. 51, p. 57, p. 90.
- The Macrolepidoptera of the world; a systematic description of the hitherto known Macrolepidoptera, ed. in collaboration with well-known specialists. Stuttgart: Seitz'schen (Kernen), 1906- url p. 115.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. 2010. Melanargia lachesis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 02February2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 26, 2008:
- GBIF-Spain: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid; Lepidópteros
- SysTax: Lobbecke Museum Dusseldorf
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2969295
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Lep-142405.0
- IUCN ID: 222331
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 837738