Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Arctic hare, Eurasian arctic, Eurasian Arctic Hare, mountain hare, white hare
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 805 meters (0 to 2,641 feet).
L. timidus inhabits tundra
and taiga, particularly pine,
birch, and juniper (Flux and Angermann 1990). Moors
and bogland are
the preferred habitats
for this species in Ireland and Scotland (Flux
and Angermann 1990). However, L. timidus hibernicus will
also utilize cultivated land
, rich agricultural area, in Ireland
(Thulin 2003). L. timidus occupies lowland woodlands of
in southern Russia along with reed belts
(Flux and Angermann 1990). In Mongolia, it occurs in forests
on the Altai, Hingan, Hentei, Hovsgol, and Hangai mountain ranges
The diet of L. timdus varies in relation to the type of habitat it occupies (Flux and Angermann 1990). Calluna (heather) constitutes the bulk of the diet in Scotland, while birch, juniper, poplar, willow, and Vaccinium are selected in Europe (Flux and Angermann 1990). If present, L. timidus will consume palatable grasses and clovers (Flux and Angermann 1990).
L. timidus is a nocturnal species that will increase daytime activity during summer months (Flux and Angermann 1990). Home range for this species ranges according to locality (Flux and Angermann 1990). In Scotland, home ranges as small as 10 ha have been observed, while in Finland it was reported that home ranges could be as large as 305 ha (Flux and Angermann 1990).
In areas where L. timidus and L. europaeus coexist, L. timidus will retreat to areas of higher elevation (Thulin 2003). The reason for this is believed to be competitive exclusion , L. timidus yields habitat to L. europaeus (Thulin 2003).
Litter size of L. timidus is variable (two to six) according to the number of litters and the latitude (Angerbjorn pers. comm. ). Gestation time is between 47-55 days (Angerbjorn pers. comm. ). The breeding season is February to August (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). L. timidus reaches maturity at one year of age. Longevity for L. timidus is nine years (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). Natural mortality for juveniles is 80%, while adult mortality is 58% (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). Total length of this species is 45.7-61.0 cm (Macdonald and Barrett 1993).
L. t. hibernicus is the only endemic hare of Ireland (Reid and Montgomery 2007). Contrary to other mountain hare populations, this subspecies "occurs at all altitudes and can be found in most habitats throughout Ireland" (Reid and Montgomery 2007). L. t. hibernicus typically forages on grasses (Reid and Montgomery 2007)..
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.1 Forest - Boreal
- 1.2 Forest - Subarctic
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.1 Shrubland - Subarctic
- 3.3 Shrubland - Boreal
- 4 Grassland
- 4.1 Grassland - Tundra
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.1 Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- (Szalay & McKenna, 1971) McKenna, 1975
- Mirorder: Duplicidentata () - (Illiger, 1811) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Grandorder: Anagalida () - (Szalay & McKenna, 1971) McKenna, 1975
- Superorder: Preptotheria () - (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- Magnorder: Epitheria () - (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- Cohort: Placentalia () - (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Supercohort: Theria () - (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Infralegion: Tribosphenida () - (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Sublegion: Zatheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Legion: Cladotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Superlegion: Trechnotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Infraclass: Holotheria () - (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Subclass: Theriiformes () - (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Class: Mammalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Aug-2007
There are currently 15 recognized subspecies : Lepus timidus ainu, L. t. begitschevi, L. t. gichiganus, L. t. hibernicus, L. t. kamtschaticus, L. t. kolymensis, L. t. kozhevnikovi, L. t. lugubris, L. t. mordeni, L. t. orii, L. t. scoticus, L. t. sibiricorum, L. t. timidus, L. t. transbaicalicus, and L. t. varronis (Hoffmann and Smith 2005)..
Members of the genus Lepus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 58 species and subspecies in this genus:
L. alleni (Antelope Jack Rabbit) · L. alleni alleni (Antelope Jack Rabbit) · L. americanus (Snowshoe Rabbit) · L. americanus americanus (Snowshoe Hare) · L. americanus klamathensis (Snowshoe Hare) · L. americanus seclusus (Bighorn Mountain Snowshoe Hare) · L. americanus tahoensis (Sierra Nevada Snowshoe Hare) · L. americanus washingtonii (Washington Snowshoe Hare) · L. arcticus (Arctic Hare) · L. arcticus arcticus (Arctic Hare) · L. brachyurus (Japanese Hare) · L. brachyurus brachyurus (Japanese Hare) · L. californica (Black-Tailed Jack Rabbit) · L. californicus (Black-Tailed Jack Rabbit) · L. californicus bennettii (Black-Tailed Jackrabbit) · L. californicus californicus (Black-Tailed Jack Rabbit) · L. callotis (Beautiful-Eared Jack Rabbit) · L. callotis callotis (Beautiful-Eared Jack Rabbit) · L. callotis gaillardi (White-Sided Jackrabbit) · L. capensis (European Hare) · L. capensis capensis (Brown Hare) · L. castroviejoi (Broom Hare) · L. comus (Yunnan Hare) · L. coreanus (Korean Hare) · L. corsicanus (APPENINE HARE) · L. europaeus (European Brown Hare) · L. fagani (Ethiopian Hare) · L. flavigularis (Tehuantepec Jack Rabbit) · L. granatensis (Iberian Hare) · L. granatensis granatensis (Granada Hare) · L. habessinicus (Abyssinian Hare) · L. hainanus (Chinese Pinyin) · L. insularis (Espiritu Santo Jackrabbit) · L. mandshuricus (Manchurian Hare) · L. microtis (African Savanna Hare) · L. nigricollis (Black-Napped Hare) · L. nigricollis nigricollis (Indian Hare) · L. oiostolus (Woolly Hare) · L. oiostolus oiostolus (Woolly Hare) · L. oistolus (Woolly Hare) · L. othus (Beringian Hare) · L. othus othus (Alaskan Hare) · L. peguensis (Siamese Hare) · L. saxatilis (Savannah Hare) · L. saxatilis saxatilis (Scrub Hare) · L. sinensis (Chinese Hare) · L. sinensis sinensis (Chinese Hare) · L. starcki (Ethiopian Highland Hare) · L. tibetanus (Desert Hare) · L. timidus (Eurasian Arctic Hare) · L. timidus timidus (Arctic Hare) · L. tolai (Tolai Hare) · L. townsendi (White-Tailed Jack Rabbit) · L. townsendii (White-Tailed Jack Rabbit) · L. townsendii campanius (White-Tailed Jackrabbit) · L. townsendii townsendii (Western White-Tailed Jackrabbit) · L. victoriae (African Savanna Hare) · L. yarkandensis (Yarkland Hare)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 11, 2008:
- Burke Museum: Mammal Specimens
- European Environment Agency: EUNIS
- Finnish Museum of Natural History: Hatikka Observation Data Gateway
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB: Paleobiology Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Biological Records Centre - Mammal records from Britain from the Atlas of Mammals (1993), with some subsequent records
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Highland Biological Recording Group - HBRG Mammals dataset.
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- UK National Biodiversity Network: The Bat Conservation Trust - The BCT/MTUK Bats & Roadside Mammals Survey
- University of Alaska Museum of the North: MSB Mammals Specimens
- University of Alaska Museum of the North: UAM Mammals Specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 107266
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-727905
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 180113
- IUCN ID: 219173
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 6753
- Mean = 247.270 meters (811.253 feet), Standard Deviation = 230.500 based on 1,586 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. 2008. Lepus timidus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]