Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Dutch:
Moeraskat of riekat
Common Names in English:
Andean Cougar, jungle cat, Lynxes, REED CAT, Small Cats, SWAMP CAT
Common Names in French:
CHAT DE JUNGLE, CHAT DES MARAIS
Common Names in Russian:
Кот лесной, хаус
Common Names in Spanish:
GATO DE LA JUNGLA, GATO DE LOS PANTANOS
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,755 meters (0 to 5,758 feet).
The jungle cat, despite its name
, is not strongly associated with
the classic rainforest "jungle" habitat
, but rather with wetlands
- habitats with water and dense vegetative
, especially reed
, and littoral
environments. Hence its
other common and more applicable name, the swamp cat. Water and dense
ground cover can be found in a variety of habitats, ranging from
desert (where it is found near oases or along riverbeds) to grassland,
shrubby woodland and dry deciduous forest
, as well as cleared areas
in moist forest (Nowell and Jackson 1996).
Areas with extensive deciduous dipterocarp forest and at least scattered surface water are the species predominant known habitat in Indochina. However, areas such as the Nakai Plateau which support other forms of savanna-like vegetation may support the species. It is probably absent from all closed canopy forests, including rainforest. The species may make use of agricultural areas with a low intensity of human use and which retain patches of scrub (Duckworth et al. , 2005).
Jungle cats have adapted well to irrigated cultivation, having been observed in many different types of agricultural and forest plantations throughout their range , such as sugar cane plantations in India. In Israel they can be found around pisciculture ponds and irrigation ditches. Vereschagin (1959) noted that the jungle cat's use of the semi-arid plains of Azerbaijan increased with the development of a local irrigation system and decreased with its abandonment. However, mowing the seasonally flooded riverine tugai vegetation (trees and shrubs with dense stands of tall reeds and grasses) of this region for livestock fodder , as well as plowing it under for agriculture, is known to be associated with the decline of jungle cat populations in the European-central Asian parts of its range (Nowell and Jackson, 1996).
Jungle cats feed mainly on prey that weighs less than one kilogram . Small mammals, principally rodents, are the prey most frequently found in feces and stomach contents. A study in India's Sariska reserve estimated that jungle cats catch and eat three to five rodent per day (Mukherjee et al. 2004). Birds rank second in importance, but in southern Russia waterfowl are the mainstay of jungle cat diet in the winter. With overwintering populations of waterfowl congretating in large numbers on unfrozen rivers and marshes, the jungle cat hunts among reeed beds and along edges of wetlands, searching for injured or weakened birds. Other prey species are taken more opportunistically, including hares, nutria, lizards, snakes , frogs , insects, and fish. In India, they have been seen to scavenge kills of large predators such as the Asiatic lion. In a study in southern Uzbekistan, the fruits of the Russian olive made up 17% of their diet in winter. While jungle cats specialize on small prey, they are large and powerful enough to kill young swine, subadult gazelles, and chital fawns (Sunquist and Sunquist, 2002).
Density estimates from natural tugai habitat in central Asia range from 4-15 individuals per 10 km², but where this vegetation type has declined due to development density does not exceed two cats per 10 km² (Nowell and Jackson, 1996). (Ref. 272991).
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 1.5 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 1.8 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
- 2 Savanna
- 2.1 Savanna - Dry
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.4 Shrubland - Temperate
- 3.5 Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 4 Grassland
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate
- 4.5 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.3 Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps, Fens , Peatlands
- 5.9 Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
- 8 Desert
- 8.1 Desert - Hot
- 8.2 Desert - Temperate [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- Grandorder: Ferae () - (Linnaeus, 1758) McKenna, 1975
- Superorder: Preptotheria () - (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- Magnorder: Epitheria () - (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- Cohort: Placentalia () - (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Supercohort: Theria () - (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Infralegion: Tribosphenida () - (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Sublegion: Zatheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Legion: Cladotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Superlegion: Trechnotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Infraclass: Holotheria () - (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Subclass: Theriiformes () - (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Class: Mammalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Aug-2007
Once thought to be closely related to the lynxes, which share its characteristic traits of tufted ears, long limbs and a short tail (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002), the Jungle Cat is actually a close relative of the domestic cat (Eizirik et al. submitted). With a wide range , a number of subspecies have been proposed (Wozencraft 2005 recognized nine), but Corbet and Hill (1992) argue that the pelage characters used by classical designators vary widely. No modern analysis of subspeciation has been undertaken..
Members of the genus Felis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 38 species and subspecies in this genus:
F. badia (Bay Cat) · F. bengalensis hainana (Leopard Cat) · F. bieti (Chinese Mountain Cat) · F. catus (Cat) · F. catus silvestris (African Wild Cat) · F. chaus (Andean Cougar) · F. colocolo (Pampas Cat) · F. concolor (Goldon Ringtail Possum) · F. concolor concolor (Mountain Lion) · F. concolor coryi (Florida Panther) · F. concolor couguar (Eastern Cougar) · F. concolor schorgeri (Wisconsin Cougar) · F. geoffroyi geoffroyi (Geoffroy's Cat) · F. guigna (Kodkod) · F. guigna guigna (Kodkod) · F. iriomotensis (Band-Tailed Goatfish) · F. libyca (African Wild Cat) · F. manul (Pallas's Cat) · F. margarita (Pakistan Sand Cat) · F. margarita margarita (Sand Dune Cat) · F. nigripes (African Black-Footed Cat) · F. nigripes nigripes (African Black-Footed Cat) · F. pardalis (Ocelot) · F. pardina (Spanish Lynx) · F. pardus (Small Cats) · F. planiceps (Flat-Headed Cat) · F. rubiginosa (Vogelkop Ringtail) · F. serval serval (Serval) · F. silvestris (Andean Cougar) · F. silvestris bieti (Chinese Desert Cat) · F. silvestris catus (African Wild Cat) · F. silvestris grampia (Scottish Wildcat) · F. sylvestris (Wild Cat) · F. temmincki (Asian Golden Cat) · F. tigris (Small Cats) · F. viverrina (Fishing Cat) · F. wiedii wiedii (Margay) · F. yagouaroundi cacomitli (Jaguarundi)
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- Zoologist. London.1843-1916 url p. 119, p. 3174.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 31, 2012.
- Cat Specialist Group 2002. Felis chaus. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org . Downloaded on 20 October 2006.
- Cat Specialist Group 2002. In IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded July 19, 2008.
- Duckworth, J.W., Steinmetz, R., Sanderson, J. & Mukherjee, S. 2008. Felis chaus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 01February2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 17, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 6 providers.
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- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 17, 2008:
- European Environment Agency: EUNIS
- Field Museum: Mammal specimens
- GBIF-Sweden: Mammals (NRM)
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History: Vertebrate specimens
- Michigan State University Museum: Vertebrate specimens
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ): Mammal specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 105474
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-183802
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13819873
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 183802
- IUCN ID: 209644
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 5137
- Mean = 417.860 meters (1,370.932 feet), Standard Deviation = 334.580 based on 301 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Duckworth, J.W., Steinmetz, R., Sanderson, J. & Mukherjee, S. 2008. Felis chaus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]