Common Names in English:
Purple Tip, Bushveld Purple Tip
'The Pieridae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Worldwide in distribution, most species are found in the tropics. Adults
have medium to small wings
that are white, yellow, or orange, with some black or red, and many have hidden ultraviolet patterns
that are used in courtship
. Species with more than one generation usually have distinct
. Adults of all species visit flowers for nectar, and adults of both sexes have three pairs of walking legs
. Males patrol in search of receptive mates, and females lay
on leaves, buds, and stems. The majority of caterpillars of North American whites and sulphurs feed
on legumes or crucifers (members of the Mustard family
). Typically, temperate
species overwinter in the pupal or larval stage
, while tropical
species overwinter as adults.
Whites, marbles, and orangetips are members of the Family Pieridae. In North America, 31 species are included . Adults of most species are predominantly white above with some black pattern elements , and their hindwings often have a pattern of yellow and black scales that appear green. Sexes of most species are only slightly dimorphic , though male orangetips have bright orange wingtips. Nearly all adults are avid flower visitors. The males of almost all North American species patrol open, sunny habitats for females, although males of some tropical whites (e.g. Mexican Dartwhite) perch along ravines . Caterpillars of most western whites feed on mustards, though some use capers and others, pineneedles. All species overwinter in the chrysalis stage, and some orangetips and marbles may pass several unfavorable years in the chrysalis stage before hatching .
Biome: Terrestrial .
Generally speaking, this species occurs widely throughout the dry
zone of Africa, particularly in dry to mesic
, frost-free savannah.
varies across its distribution. In West Africa
it is found primarily in Sudan savannah (Larsen 2005). But it also
sometimes arises in dry forest
, such as in coastal Kenya (Larsen
1991). It is a poor colonizer of disturbed
areas in the forest zone proper.
At high altitudes , in Kenya, specimens spend considerable amounts of time basking in the sun in order to raise their body temperature . Males have a very rapid flight, one to two metres above the ground . Females fly much more slowly and tend to remain in and around thick bush . Both sexes are strongly attracted to flowers.
Larval host-plants include: Boscia, Cadaba, Capparis, and Maerua species (Capparaceae)..
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.5 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 2 Savanna
- 2.1 Savanna - Dry
- 2.2 Savanna - Moist
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.5 Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 4 Grassland
- 4.5 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Members of the genus Colotis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- British journal of entomology and natural history. [London]: British Entomological and Natural History Society, 1988- url p. 35, p. 70.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.
- GloBIS (GART): Global Butterfly Information System. Release date: November 23, 2008
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Larsen, T. 2011. Colotis ione. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 31January2012.
- LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The Global Lepidoptera Names Index2, 12.2, 2005.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2968629
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Gar-1298
- IUCN ID: 201496
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 811165
- http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/taxonomy?f=15&sci=Pieridae&com=Whites and Sulphurs [back]
- http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Creusa&search=Search [back]
- Larsen, T. 2011. Colotis ione. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2012. [back]