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Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
calloo, cockawee, coween, Hound, John Connolly, long-tail, Long-tailed Duck, Long-tailled Duck, old Billy, old granny, old injun, old molly, old squaw, Old wife, oldsquaw, quandy, scoldenore, scolder, south-southerly, southerly old squaw, squeaking duck, swallow-tailed duck, uncle Huldy, winter duck
Common Names in French:
Harelde boréale, Harelde de Miquelon, harelde kakawi
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Havelda, Pato cola larga, Pato Havelda
Common Names in Swedish:
Adult Female: Head : dark Face : Postocular Stripe : whitish Bill: gray Length : short Body: Underparts: white Upperparts: dark.Adult Male: Face: Eyebrow Line : brownish black with pale patch Bill: black with pinkish ring Length: short Body: Sides: white Legs : Femorals: white Tail: black Length: long.
male alternate: Plumage worn in Spring
and Summer ·
Very long, black, central tail feathers
· Black head
chest, and back · Large white patch
on the head around the
eye · White flanks, belly and undertail coverts · Pinkish
Adult male basic: Plumage worn in Fall and Winter · Very long, black, central tail feathers · White crown, neck, back, flanks, and belly · Black chest and lower back · Gray face patch · Black bill with pale near tip
Immature male: Short, black, central tail feathers · White head and neck with dark crown and face patch · Gray chest and back · Whitish flanks and belly · Black bill with pale near tip
Adult female winter: White head and neck with dark crown and face patch · Gray back · White flanks and belly · Pale bill · Plumage somewhat darker in summer
About 15 to 22 inches long, with a wingspan of 26 to 31 inches. Adults weigh about 33.6 ounces .
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 56 meters (183 feet).
Behaviour This species is fully migratory1
although its movements are poorly understood5.
from late-May onwards3 in single pairs
groups1, 2, the males leaving the females
soon after the start of incubation3 (between late-June
and early-September) to gather in small flocks for a flightless moulting
period5. Some populations undergo extensive moult
migrations of up to 1,000 km
, while others moult on waters near the
breeding grounds3. Females moult between early-August
and early-October on the breeding grounds5, often
abandoning their young at the start of the moult (the ducklings then
gather into large parentless groups)4. The southward
autumn migration occurs from September to October after the post-breeding
moult5 and non-breeders may oversummer in the wintering
areas3. Outside of the breeding season
is highly gregarious4, in winter gathering into
large aggregations of perhaps several tens of thousands of individuals
to roost or to feed
and offshore waters1.
The species regularly dives to depths of 3-10 m
depth 50-60 m)2 and is diurnal2.
Breeding The species breeds on marshy
in the high Arctic1, 6, especially where
habitat mosaics are formed by hummocks and ridges
together with moist
bogs1, slow rivers1, 3 or pools
of standing water7. It generally avoids wooded
tundra4, 7 but is common among willows or dwarf
birch in the arctic-alpine
The species also breeds on small rocky islands off mainland Arctic
coasts and on larger offshore islands, using promontories, deltas7,
coastal inlets1, 3 and islets
Non-breeding The species winters at sea
, generally far offshore1
in waters 10-35 m deep5, as well as in saline,
or fresh estuarine
waters4, brackish lagoons1,
and inland (very rarely) on large, deep freshwater lakes1.
The species showing a preference for marine
both the breeding and non-breeding seasons4, its
diet consisting predominantly of animal matter7
such as crustaceans1 (e.g.
and cladocerans4), molluscs
, other marine invertebrates
, worms) and fish1. The species
also takes freshwater insects and insect larvae1
as well as plant material
such as algae, grasses, and the seeds and
fruits of tundra plants1. Breeding site The
is a natural depression
on dry ground
positioned in the open,
amongst vegetation1, partially hidden by overhanging
boulders3 or under low shrubs4
(e.g. willows or dwarf birch)6 usually close to
water3. Although it is not a colonial
pairs may nest in loose groups, and the species may also nest in
association with Artic Terns2.
List of Habitats:
- 4 Grassland
- 4.1 Grassland - Tundra
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.1 Marine Neritic - Pelagic
- 9.2 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
- 9.3 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
- 9.4 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
- 9.5 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
- 9.7 Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
- 9.9 Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged) [more info]
- Clutch Size: 5-9
- Length of Incubation : 26 (24-29) days
- Days to Fledge : 35-40
- Number of Broods: 1
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Sibley et al., 1988
- Wagler, 1831
- Suborder: Anseres () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Wagler, 1831
- Order: Anseriformes () - Wagler, 1831
- Superorder: Galloanserimorphae () - Sibley et al., 1988
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 23-Jan-2007
Members of the genus Clangula
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species and subspecies in this genus:
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, North West Territories and Nunavut Bird Checklist, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Ontario Nest Records
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal British Columbia Museum
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 11754
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-175147
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3085810
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 175147
- IUCN ID: 200725
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNJB16010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 6868
- Standard Deviation = 228.650 based on 20,000 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2011. Clangula hyemalis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2012. [back]