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Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Albanian:
Lejleku I Zi
Common Names in Armenian:
[sev Aragil ]
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Common Names in Breton:
Ar C'hwibon Du
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Common Names in French:
Cicogne Noire, Cigogne noire
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Common Names in Japanese:
Nabe-Ko, Nabekou, ナベコウ
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Common Names in Portuguese:
Cegonha Preta, Cegonha-Preta
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Common Names in Russian:
Chyorny Aist, Аист черный, Черный аист
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Common Names in Sotho, Southern:
Common Names in Spanish:
Cig, Cigu, Ciguëña negra
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Common Names in Xhosa:
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 659 meters (2,161 feet).
Behavior Most populations of this species are fully migratory and
travel on a narrow front1 along well-defined routes2,
3. Some breeding populations (e.g.
in Spain) are also sedentary
and southern African breeding birds disperse locally after breeding
(often with altitudinal movements)1. The species
is a solitary nester
, the timing of breeding varying between populations
but generally coinciding with the local spring
in the Palearctic
Region and southern Africa1. On migration the species
may travel singly5 or in small groups1
of up to 100 individuals5, and on its wintering
it is normally observed singly or in small groups of less
than 30 individuals3 (although it may also roost
communally in South Africa)3. Habitat
species inhabits old, undisturbed, open forests1, 5
from sea-level up to mountainous regions (e.g. 2,000-2,500 m
in shallow streams
swampy patches5, damp meadows2,
flood-plains, pools in dry riverbeds4 and occasionally
grasslands1 especially where there are stands of
reeds or long grass3. It generally avoids large
bodies of water and dense forest1, but non-breeding
birds may frequent the estuaries of tidal
in South Africa2.
Diet It is predominantly piscivorous
although it may also
, insects, snails, crabs, small reptiles
and birds1. Breeding site The nest
large construction of sticks1 positioned between
4-25 m high2 in large forest
or on cliffs
and Spain)1. The
species shows a preference for nesting in trees
that have canopies
large enough to hold
the nest away from the main trunk
25 m high, 120 years old and with a diameter at breast height
66 cm)9. It nests solitarily, with pairs spread
out in the landscape at a distance
of no less than 1 km
the species is most numerous
)2. The species may
occupy the nests of other bird species such as Aquila verreauxi
or Hamerkop Scopus umbretta and commonly reuses nests in successive
information A study in
Estonia found that the retention
of large older trees during forest
management is important in providing nesting sites for the species9.
measures aimed at increasing the species's breeding
success and population density
large territories of
predominantly deciduous woodland and should focus
on managing the
river quality as far as 20 km away from nesting sites, protecting
and managing feeding habitats, and improving food resources
shallow artificial pools in grasslands or along rivers8(Ref.
List of Habitats:
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Garrod, 1874
- Bonaparte, 1854
- Bonaparte, 1854
- Parvorder: Ciconiida ()
- Infraorder: Ciconiides () -
- Suborder: Ciconiae () - Bonaparte, 1854
- Order: Ciconiiformes () - Bonaparte, 1854
- Superorder: Ciconiimorphae () - Garrod, 1874
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, 1758)
Members of the genus Ciconia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species and subspecies in this genus:
C. abdimii (White-Billed Stork) · C. boyciana (Japanese White Stork) · C. ciconia (European White Stork) · C. ciconia boyciana (Oriental White Stork) · C. ciconia ciconia (Western Palearctic White Stork) · C. episcopus (Bishop Stork) · C. episcopus episcopus (Woolly-Necked Stork) · C. episcopus microscelis (Woolly-Necked Stork) · C. maguari (American Stork) · C. nigra (Black Stork) · C. stormi (Storm's Stork)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Western Palearctic migrants in continental Africa
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- , Bird specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8940
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-174909
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2494622
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 174909
- IUCN ID: 200440
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 152967