244; 37816). Viviparous. Regarded as dangerous to humans. Flesh utilized fresh and dried-salted for human consumption ; its hide for leather ; its fin for shark-fin soup ; its liver for oil (Ref. 244). 2 to 14 young, 73 to 87 cm, are born per litter .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Bali:
Hiu Lonjor, Mungsing
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Blackspot shark, Gray Reef Shark, Grey whaler shark, Net-Eater Shark, Olive shark, reef shark, Ridgeback shark, Shark, Sickle shark, Sickle silk shark, Sickle-shaped shark, Silk shark, silky shark, Silky Whaler, Tollo
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Mangeur d'hommes, Requin Renard, Requin soyeux
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Greek:
Karcharinos lios, Καρχαρίνος λείος
Common Names in Greek, Modern:
Karcharinos Lios, Καρχαρίνος λείος
Common Names in Greek, Modern (1453):
Karcharinos lios, Καρχαρίνος λείος
Common Names in Gujarati:
Common Names in Hawaiian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Kurotogari zame, Kurotogarizame
Common Names in Javanese:
Common Names in Jawa:
Cucut Lanjaman, Hiu Lanyam
Common Names in Kannada:
Common Names in Malay:
Mungsing, Yu, Yu jereh, Yu pasir
Common Names in Malayalam:
Mandi sravu, മണ്ടി സ്റാവ്
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
佛罗里达真鲨, 佛羅里達真鯊, 大沙, 平滑白眼鮫, 平滑白眼鲛, 鐮狀真鯊, 镰状真鲨, 黑印真鯊, 黑印真鲨, 黑背真鯊, 黑背真鲨
Common Names in Marathi:
Common Names in Other:
mago, Magogo, Magomago
Common Names in Papiamento:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Ca, Cação, Lombo preto, Marracho sedoso, Marracho-luzidio, Tubar, Tubarão-luzidio
Common Names in Samoan:
Common Names in Sindhi:
Common Names in Spanish:
Caz, Cazon, Cazón de playa, Cazón-tiburón, Jaqueta, Jaqueton, Tibur, Tiburón, Tiburón jaquetón, Tiburón lustroso, tiburón piloto, Tiburón sedoso, Tinterero, Tollo, Tollo mantequero
Common Names in Swahili:
Mbamba menyo, Papa, Papa bunshu
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Tagalog:
Common Names in Tahitian:
Common Names in Telugu:
Karimuthu sura, Suga sura, కరిముతు సురా, సుగ సుర
Common Names in Thai:
Species Carcharhinus falciformis
Distinctive Features: A large, slender shark
, the silky
by a moderately extended, rounded
snout, a relatively sloping first
dorsal fin with a blunt
apex that originates behind
of the pectoral fins, a small second dorsal fin with an extremely
long free rear tip
(more than 2x the height
), and a low inter-dorsal
. Pectoral fins are long and slender, typically with dusky
Dentition: Upper teeth broadly triangular and oblique becoming more diagonal toward the angle of the jaws , strongly notched laterally, heavily serrated on both sides (slightly more basally). Lower teeth erect with smooth edges . Usually 1 or 2 symphysial teeth in both the upper and lower jaws.
Dermal Denticles : Denticles are small, tightly packed and over-lapping giving the hide a smooth or "silky" texture , hence the common name .
Dark gray with a bronzy tint dorsally and white ventrally. Tips of fins other than first dorsal dusky , more conspicuous in juveniles .
Maximum length for this species is 3.3 m (10 ft ). Males mature at 215-230 cm (9-10 years of age) and grow to a lesser size than females, which reach maturity at 230-245 cm (12 years of age), however, these numbers may vary by population. For example, populations in the Pacific and Indian oceans generally have a smaller size at maturation . Size at birth is 70-85 cm (2-2.5 ft). Maximum age is believed to be 22+ years.Males are commonly 250 cm (Total Length) in length when caught/marketed, but may be as large as 350 cm (Total Length).
Although essentially pelagic, the silky shark is not restricted to the open ocean and has been recorded from depths as shallow as 18 meters (56 ft ). It is an active , swift shark that prefers warmer water (about 23°C). It is commonly found near the edges of continental shelves and over deepwater reefs where there is abundant food source. Typically, it ranges from the surface down to at least 500 meters (1,550 ft) but has been caught over water as deep as 4000 meters (12,4000 ft). Studies show no strong tendency for sexual segregation in the silky shark however, they often travel with others of their own size indicating that size segregation is present within the species. Typically, smaller sharks can be found in coastal nurseries and adults further offshore over deeper water. Small silky sharks are commonly associated with schools of tuna . May be found at depths of 0 to 500 meters.
Typically found in water with a depth of 0 to -5,230 meters (0 to -17,159 feet).
is essentially pelagic and is most often found near
of continental and insular
shelves at depths of 200 m
more in the epipelagic zone although it occurs to at least 500 m
depth offshore (Compagno in prep). It is often associated with islands,
near insular slopes and over deepwater
reefs. It has also been recorded
to as shallow as 18 m depth (Compagno in prep). It is an
swift species, preferring warmer waters (about 23°C). Smaller
are often found in coastal nurseries and adults
over deeper water. However, in the central Indian Ocean juveniles
, associated with drifting objects (C.
The Silky Shark is a live bearer, usually having around 6?12 pups every one or two years (2?15 per litter , Last and Stevens 1994). The gestation period is 12 months (Bonfil et al. 1993). Life history parameters of silky sharks seem to vary geographically, perhaps reflecting the existence of distinct stocks for different ocean basins . In the Gulf of Mexico, Silky Sharks grow at a moderate rate and first attain maturity at about 215?225 cm TL for males and 232?246 cm TL for females, or around 6?10 years and 7?12+ years respectively (Branstetter 1987, Bonfil et al. 1993). They can live to at least 22+ years (Bonfil 1990) and attain a length of up to 330 cm TL. In this part of the world, the young are born at about 76 cm TL during the summer, whereas in other oceans the species seems to have no seasonality in reproduction (Bonfil et al. 1993). This species has a moderate to low intrinsic rate of increase ; estimated at 0.043 by Smith et al. (1998) (moderate range : 0.04?0.07). Hoyos (2003) provides information on the life-history parameters of silky sharks from Mexico in the Eastern Central Pacific and Ruíz and Ixquiac (2000), Morales (2002) and Villatoro and Rivera (1994) from Guatemala and El Salvador. Both males and females reportedly mature at 180?182 cm TL off Mexico in the Eastern Central Pacific, with females reaching a maximum size of 316 TL and producing 2?9 pups per litter (Hoyos 2003). Oshitani et al. (2003) reported on the age and growth of silky sharks in the Pacific Ocean (using samples collected from Japanese tuna longline and purse seine fisheries). They found that males mature at >186 cm TL and at 5?6 years of age, and females at 193?200 cm TL and 6?7 years of age. Size at birth ranged from 65?81 cm TL. In contrast to earlier studies in the Pacific Ocean, Oshitani et al. (2003) noted that their results were similar to those of studies in the Atlantic Ocean. In the Maldives, Indian Ocean, males are estimated to mature at about 205 cm TL, reaching a maximum size of 242 cm TL; females reaching a maximum size of 263 cm TL (Anderson unpublished data ). Size at birth is reported at 56?72 cm TL in this area (Anderson unpublished data).
Recently, intensive demographic modelling of shark populations revealed that the silky shark from southern and northern Gulf of Mexico has moderate levels of intrinsic rate of increase (ca. 0.10 and 0.055) (Cortés 2002).
Silky Sharks generally leave their coastal nursery grounds and move offshore to a more oceanic existence as sub-adults, frequently joining tuna schools on which they seem to feed (Branstetter 1987). The Silky Shark is a piscivorous shark feeding on sea catfish, mullets , mackerel , yellowfin tuna, albacore, porcupine fish and other fish species, as well as on a variety of cephalopods (Compagno 1984, Bonfil 1990)..
List of Habitats :
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.1 Marine Neritic - Pelagic
- 10 Marine Oceanic
- 10.1 Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
- 10.2 Marine Oceanic - Mesopelagic (200-1000m)
- 11 Marine Deep Benthic
- 11.1 Marine Deep Benthic - Continental Slope/Bathyl Zone (200-4,000m) [more info]
Feeds primarily on a variety of bony fish, cephalopods , and to a lesser extent, crustaceans. Tuna (little tunny and yellowfin), albacore, mullet, mackerel , porcupine fish, squid, nautiluses, and various crabs have all been found in the stomachs silky sharks .
Reproduction is viviparous (placental ). In the western North Atlantic, females give birth in late spring (May-June) and mate around the same time in alternating years. The gestation period is about 12 months. Number of sharks per litter is 6-14 in the western Atlantic, 9-12 in the eastern Atlantic, 9-14 in the western Indian, and 2-11 in the central Indian. Neonates spend first the few months in near reefs but move to the open ocean by the first winter. In the western North Atlantic, nursery areas are located along the Caribbean islands.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Class: Chondrichthyes ()
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Aprionodon sitankaiensis Herre • Carcharhinus atrodorsus Deng • Carcharhinus falciformes • Carcharhinus falciformes (Müller & Henle, 1839) • Carcharhinus falciformes< /i> (Müller & Henle • Carcharhinus falciformes< /i> (Müller & Henle • Carcharhinus falciformis • Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle (ex Bibron), 1839) • Carcharhinus falciformis< /i> (Müller and Henle • Carcharhinus floridanus Bigelow • Carcharhinus menisorrah< /i> (Müller & Henle • Carcharias falciformis • Carcharias falciformis Müller & Henle • Carcharias falciformis Müller and Henle, 1839 • Carcharias falcipinnis Lowe • Carcharias menisorrah Müller & Henle • Carcharins menisorrah Müller & Henle • Eulamia malpeloensis Fowler • Eulamia menisorrah< /i> (Müller & Henle • Gymnorhinus pharaonis Hemprich & Ehrenberg • Prionodon tiburo Poey • Schroeder & Springer • Squalus tiburo Poey • Xiong & Zhan
Status: Accepted Name
First described: Müller, J. and F.g.j. Henle Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Berlin, Veit, (2):29-102., 1839.
Comment: ex Bibron.
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 28-Oct-2000
Members of the genus Carcharhinus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 36 species and subspecies in this genus:
C. acronotus (Blacknose Shark) · C. ahenea (Shortnose Blacktail Shark) · C. albimarginatus (Silvertip Shark) · C. altimus (Knopp´s Shark) · C. amblyrhynchoides (Graceful Shark) · C. amblyrhynchos (Shortnose Blacktail Shark) · C. amboinensis (Ambon Sharpnose Puffer) · C. azureus (Large Blacktip Shark) · C. borneensis (Borneo Mullet) · C. brachyurus (Black-Tipped Whaler) · C. brevipinna (Blacktipped Shark) · C. cautus (Sharks Bay Whaler Shark) · C. dussumieri (Whitecheek Shark) · C. falciformis (Sickle-Shaped Shark) · C. fitzroyensis (Creek Whaler Shark) · C. galapagensis (Galapagos Shark) · C. hemiodon (Pondicherry Shark) · C. isodon (Fintooth Shark) · C. leiodon (Smoothtooth Blacktip Shark) · C. leucas (Bull Shark) · C. limbatus (Blacktip Shark) · C. longimanus (Brown Milbert's Sand Bar Shark) · C. macloti (Hardnose Shark) · C. melanopterus (Black Fin Reef Shark) · C. obscurus (Dusky Shark) · C. perezi (Caribbean Reef Shark) · C. perezii (Caribbean Reef Shark) · C. plumbeus (Northern Whaler Shark) · C. porosus (Tiburon Peninsula Limia) · C. sealei (Black-Spot Shark) · C. signatus (Night Shark) · C. sorrah (West Australian Whaler Shark) · C. springeri (Reef Shark) · C. tilstoni (Australian Blacktip Shark) · C. velox (Whitenose Shark) · C. wheeleri (Blacktail Reef Shark)
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- A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Report presented at the eighty-ninth annual meeting, Clearwater, Fla., Sept. 16-18, 1959. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1960. url p. 7.
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- FishBase. Release date: January 5, 2010
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 01, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 10 providers.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:
- Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates: Fish Collection
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Bureau of Rural Sciences National commercial fisheries half-degree data set 2000-2002 (OBIS Australia)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: CSIRO Marine Data Warehouse (OBIS Australia)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Fish Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Shark Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: REVIZEE South Score / Pelagic and Demersal Fish Database (OBIS South America, BRAZIL)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity - Fish Collection (AfrOBIS)
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History: Vertebrate specimens
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB: Paleobiology Database
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- National Chemical Laboratory: IndOBIS, Indian Ocean Node of OBIS
- OZCAM (Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums) Provider: Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums
- Royal Ontario Museum: Fish specimens
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: CNPE/Coleccion Nacional de Peces
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 122887
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-23054
- Fishbase Species ID: 868
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13529401
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 160310
- IUCN ID: 197926
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 105881
- Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. (125, Vol. 4, Part 2), 655 p. [back]
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- Mean = -2,236.550 meters (-7,337.762 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,827.470 based on 73 observations. Ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Bonfil, R., Amorim, A., Anderson, C., Arauz, R., Baum, J., Clarke, S.C., Graham, R.T., Gonzalez, M., Jolón, M., Kyne, P.M., Mancini, P., Márquez, F., Ruíz, C. & Smith, W. 2009. Carcharhinus falciformis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2012. [back]
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