Common Names in English:
Calypso Caper White, Calypso White
'The Pieridae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Worldwide in distribution, most species are found in the tropics. Adults
have medium to small wings
that are white, yellow, or orange, with some black or red, and many have hidden ultraviolet patterns
that are used in courtship
. Species with more than one generation usually have distinct
. Adults of all species visit flowers for nectar, and adults of both sexes have three pairs of walking legs
. Males patrol in search of receptive mates, and females lay
on leaves, buds, and stems. The majority of caterpillars of North American whites and sulphurs feed
on legumes or crucifers (members of the Mustard family
). Typically, temperate
species overwinter in the pupal or larval stage
, while tropical
species overwinter as adults.
Whites, marbles, and orangetips are members of the Family Pieridae. In North America, 31 species are included . Adults of most species are predominantly white above with some black pattern elements , and their hindwings often have a pattern of yellow and black scales that appear green. Sexes of most species are only slightly dimorphic , though male orangetips have bright orange wingtips. Nearly all adults are avid flower visitors. The males of almost all North American species patrol open, sunny habitats for females, although males of some tropical whites (e.g. Mexican Dartwhite) perch along ravines . Caterpillars of most western whites feed on mustards, though some use capers and others, pineneedles. All species overwinter in the chrysalis stage, and some orangetips and marbles may pass several unfavorable years in the chrysalis stage before hatching .
Biome: Terrestrial .
The species is widespread and common in most of the African forest zone, especially in somewhat drier forests, though it will be found around the edges of even the wettest forests. In West Africa it also occurs in dense Guinea savanna and open areas in the forest zone. Males are often observed in mud-puddles, and both sexes are attracted to flowers. The species occasionally migrates; one such mixed migration in Lagos, Nigeria in late May, 1967 was recorded (Larsen 1968).
Larval host-plants include most forest Capparidaceae (Capparis, Cadaba, Maerua and Ritchiea spp. ).
List of Habitats :
- 1 Forest
- 1.5 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 1.6 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
- 1.8 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
- 2 Savanna
- 2.1 Savanna - Dry
- 2.2 Savanna - Moist [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 04-Mar-2007
A number of subspecies – difficult to characterize properly – are recognized. In the eastern parts of the range a number of similar species occur, which are difficult to tell apart from this butterfly.
Members of the genus Belenois
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- A hand-book to the order Lepidoptera. By W.F. Kirby. .. London, E. Lloyd, limited, 1896-1897. url p. 161.
- A handbook to the order Lepidoptera. By W. F. Kirby. London, E. Lloyd, limited, 1896-1897. url , p. 161.
- Nature. London, etc., Macmillan Journals Ltd., etc. url p. 167.
- On a collection of butterflies. London, 1880-98 url p. 433.
- The Entomologist's monthly magazine. Oxford [etc.]Entomologist's Monthly Magazine Ltd. [etc.] url p. 20.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 261.
- The Entomologist. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., [1877- url p. 103, p. 103, p. 17, p. 17.
- The Hope reports. Oxford: Printed for private circulation, 1897-1958. url , p. 14, p. 268, p. 276.
- Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. London, The Society. url , , , p. 268, p. 276, p. 433, p. 96, p. 97.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Larsen, T.B. 2011. Belenois calypso. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 30January2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2960980
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Gar-1132
- IUCN ID: 194843
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1580183
- http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/taxonomy?f=15&sci=Pieridae&com=Whites and Sulphurs [back]
- http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Creusa&search=Search [back]
- Larsen, T.B. 2011. Belenois calypso. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012. [back]