Common Names in English:
'The Pieridae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Worldwide in distribution, most species are found in the tropics. Adults
have medium to small wings
that are white, yellow, or orange, with some black or red, and many have hidden ultraviolet patterns
that are used in courtship
. Species with more than one generation usually have distinct
. Adults of all species visit flowers for nectar, and adults of both sexes have three pairs of walking legs
. Males patrol in search of receptive mates, and females lay
on leaves, buds, and stems. The majority of caterpillars of North American whites and sulphurs feed
on legumes or crucifers (members of the Mustard family
). Typically, temperate
species overwinter in the pupal or larval stage
, while tropical
species overwinter as adults.
Whites, marbles, and orangetips are members of the Family Pieridae. In North America, 31 species are included . Adults of most species are predominantly white above with some black pattern elements , and their hindwings often have a pattern of yellow and black scales that appear green. Sexes of most species are only slightly dimorphic , though male orangetips have bright orange wingtips. Nearly all adults are avid flower visitors. The males of almost all North American species patrol open, sunny habitats for females, although males of some tropical whites (e.g. Mexican Dartwhite) perch along ravines . Caterpillars of most western whites feed on mustards, though some use capers and others, pineneedles. All species overwinter in the chrysalis stage, and some orangetips and marbles may pass several unfavorable years in the chrysalis stage before hatching .
Biome: Terrestrial .
The species arises in dense woodland, Brachystegia spp. woodland and also on forest margins (Kielland 1990, Heath et al. 2002). Larval host plants of this butterfly include Ritchiea species (Capparaceae) (Kielland 1990).
List of Habitats :
- 1 Forest
- 1.5 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 1.6 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
- 1.9 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 05-Mar-2007
The nominate subspecies was described from Angola and is found also in Zambia and southern DRC. A further subspecies (ssp. kongwana) occurs in Malawi, much of eastern Tanzania, Uganda and southern Kenya. Ssp. peeli is also recorded from Somalia, but this appears to be biogeographically anomalous . It has been suggested that ssp. peeli may simply represent a dry season form of the nominate subspecies (D'Abrera 1997). Therefore, the taxonomy of this subspecies remains uncertain..
Members of the genus Belenois
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- D’Abrera, B. 1997. Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region, Part 1: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Acraeidae, Danaidae, Satyridae. Hill House Publishers, Melbourne.
- Heath, A., Newport, M.A. and Hancock, D. 2002. Butterflies of Zambia. Lepidopterists' Society of Africa and A.B.R.I.
- IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
- Kielland, J. 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania. Hill House.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Larsen, T. 2011. Belenois rubrosignata. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 30January2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2977362
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Gar-1148
- IUCN ID: 194845
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1580280
- http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/taxonomy?f=15&sci=Pieridae&com=Whites and Sulphurs [back]
- http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Creusa&search=Search [back]
- Larsen, T. 2011. Belenois rubrosignata. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012. [back]