Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
European Water Vole, Eurasian Water Vole, Water Vole
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Spanish:
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,125 meters (0 to 10,253 feet).
This large vole is adaptable and survives in a range
and marshes in the lowlands and the mountains
(Harrison and Bates 1991). It is a strong
swimmer and climber
and Bates 1991). It occurs around streams and irrigation
In Fennoscandia and locally in the Balkans, they live fossorial
during winter months. Steep riverbanks with lush grass
are preferred. May be active
at any time, but are most active at
dawn and dusk. Mainly vegetarian, feeding primarily on succulent
vegetation, but also consumes some insects, mollusks, and small fish;
, bulbs and tubers in the winter (Reichstein 1982, Harrison
and Bates 1991). Reproduction
occurs during the warmer months of
the year and may begin as early as February in mild years. Gestation
period is 21 days. Females produce
per year. Average
between 4-6 young..
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.1 Forest - Boreal
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 4 Grassland
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.2 Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.7 Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- (Szalay & McKenna, 1971) McKenna, 1975
- (Weber, 1904) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Bowdich, 1821
- Brandt, 1855
- Infraorder: Myodonta () - (Schaub, in Grassé & Dekeyser, 1955) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Suborder: Myomorpha () - Brandt, 1855
- Order: Rodentia () - Bowdich, 1821 - Rodents
- Mirorder: Simplicidentata () - (Weber, 1904) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Grandorder: Anagalida () - (Szalay & McKenna, 1971) McKenna, 1975
- Superorder: Preptotheria () - (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- Magnorder: Epitheria () - (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- Cohort: Placentalia () - (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Supercohort: Theria () - (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Infralegion: Tribosphenida () - (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Sublegion: Zatheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Legion: Cladotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Superlegion: Trechnotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Infraclass: Holotheria () - (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Subclass: Theriiformes () - (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Class: Mammalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Linnaeus' amphibius and terrestris, both proposed in 1758 on the same page, are now considered conspecific by most researchers. As shown by Corbet (1978), amphibius has a priority over terrestris, based on Blasius (1857) as the first reviser . Recently, this species was split into A. amphibius and A. scherman (Panteleyev 2001, Wilson and Reeder 2005). Arvicola amphibius is larger, with shaggy pelage and ortodont incisors, and is associated with aquatic environment; A. scherman is smaller, with softer pelage, more reduced plantar and palmar tubercles , and the upper incisors strongly projecting forwards and has fossorial habits (Panteleyev 2001). Mitochondrial phylogeny based on sequences of 800 to 1,200 BP of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene suggests taxonomy of A. amphibius group to be more complex : three main groups were distinguished within A. amphibius: (1) strictly fossorial water voles from the mountain regions of Europe, (2) aquatic and transitional populations living south of the Alps, and (3) a heterogeneous group of the remaining aquatic populations (Wust Saucy 1998)..
Members of the genus Arvicola
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species and subspecies in this genus:
A. amphibius (European Water Vole) · A. sapidus (Southwestern Water Vole) · A. sapidus sapidus (Southwestern Water Vole) · A. terrestris (European Water Vole) · A. terrestris terrestris (European Water Vole)
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- Batsaikhan, N., Henttonen, H., Meinig, H., Shenbrot, G., Bukhnikashvili, A., Amori, G., Hutterer, R., Kryštufek, B., Yigit, N., Mitsain, G. & Muñoz, L.J.P. 2008. Arvicola amphibius. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 30January2012.
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5731727
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2136937
- IUCN ID: 192882
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2222409
- Mean = 203.850 meters (668.799 feet), Standard Deviation = 374.090 based on 25,804 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Batsaikhan, N., Henttonen, H., Meinig, H., Shenbrot, G., Bukhnikashvili, A., Amori, G., Hutterer, R., Kryštufek, B., Yigit, N., Mitsain, G. & Muñoz, L.J.P. 2008. Arvicola amphibius. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012. [back]