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Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Antarctic fur seal, Kerguelen fur seal
Common Names in French:
Arctoc?phale De Kerguelen
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 5,013 meters (0 to 16,447 feet).
Fur Seals are a strongly sexually dimorphic
males are approximately 1.8 m
long and weigh between 130 and 2,000
. Adult females are 1.2 - 1.4 m and 22 - 50 kg. Newborns weigh
6 - 7 kg (Laws 1993). Age of first reproduction
is 3 years for females
(Lunn et al.
1994) and 7 years for males (McCann and Doidge
Antarctic Fur Seals are highly polygynous . Males arrive at the colonies in late October, some 2-3 weeks before the first females arrive and establish territories. Males continue to arrive and challenge one another for territories through much of the season . Territories are acquired and held by use of vocalizations, threat postures and fighting (Bonner 1968). Females begin to arrive in mid-November and most pupping and breeding occurs from late November to late December. They give birth 1-2 days after arrival at the colony and subsequently attend their pup for 6-7 days. They come into oestrous, mate and then depart shortly afterwards for their first foraging trip of the season (Doidge et al. 1986, Payne 1977). Foraging trip and attendance periods vary by year depending on the availability of the lactating female’s chief prey , adult krill, but generally last 4-5 days at sea followed by 2-3 days attendance on shore (Boyd 1999, Costa et al. 1989, Guinet et al. 2000). Antarctic fur seals undertake short shallow dives, primarily at night (Boyd and Croxall 1992, Costa et al. 2000, Robinson et al. 2002). Mean dive depth and duration increase during the lactation period (Boyd 1999, Costa et al. 1989, Guinet et al. 2000).
Pups are weaned at about four months of age. After the pups are weaned, females are thought to disperse widely and are seldom seen at the colonies before the next breeding season . Breeding bulls also depart the rookery, but subadults and some adult males can be seen at rookeries on South Georgia all year (Bonner 1968, Payne 1977).
The diet of Antarctic Fur Seals varies by season and location. At South Georgia and Bouvet Island Antarctic Fur Seals feed primarily on krill (Bonner 1968, Klages et al. 1998, North et al. 1983). At Heard Island, Macquarie Island and the Prince Edward Islands krill is not available and lactating females prey primarily on cephalopods and fish such as myctophids and notothenids (Green et al. 1989, Green et al. 1991, Klages and Bester 1998, Robinson et al. 2002). Antarctic Fur Seals have also been known to eat penguins at a number of sites (Bonner 1968, Green et al. 1989, Hofmeyr and Bester 1993)
Antarctic Fur Seals are sympatric with other species of fur seals at three sites. Hybridization with Subantarctic Fur Seals occurs at the Prince Edward Islands (Hofmeyr et al. 2006) and the Îles Crozet (Guinet et al. 1994) and with both Subantarctic Fur Seals and New Zealand Fur Seals at Macquarie Island (Goldsworthy et al. 1999)..
List of Habitats :
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.1 Marine Neritic - Pelagic
- 10 Marine Oceanic
- 10.1 Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
- 12 Marine Intertidal
- 12.1 Marine Intertidal - Rocky Shoreline
- 13 Marine Coastal/Supratidal
- 13.1 Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- (Linnaeus, 1758) McKenna, 1975
- Bowdich, 1821
- Kretzoi, 1943
- Flower, 1869
- Tedford, 1976
- Series: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/title/58052" ta ()
- Parvorder: Ursida () - Tedford, 1976
- Infraorder: Arctoidea () - Flower, 1869
- Suborder: Caniformia () - Kretzoi, 1943
- Order: Carnivora () - Bowdich, 1821
- Grandorder: Ferae () - (Linnaeus, 1758) McKenna, 1975
- Superorder: Preptotheria () - (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- Magnorder: Epitheria () - (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- Cohort: Placentalia () - (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Supercohort: Theria () - (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Infralegion: Tribosphenida () - (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Sublegion: Zatheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Legion: Cladotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Superlegion: Trechnotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Infraclass: Holotheria () - (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Subclass: Theriiformes () - (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Class: Mammalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Aug-2007
Antarctic Fur Seals were formerly considered a subspecies of Arctocephalus tropicalis and were known as A. t. gazella (Repenning et al. 1971)..
Members of the genus Arctocephalus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 12 species and subspecies in this genus:
A. australis (South American Fur Seal) · A. australis australis (Falkland Fur Seal) · A. australis gracilis (South American Fur Seal) · A. forsteri (South Australian Fur Seal) · A. galapagoensis (Gal?pagos Fur Seal) · A. gazella (Kerguelen Fur Seal) · A. philippii (Juan Fern?ndez Fur Seal) · A. pusillus (Afro-Australian Fur Seal) · A. pusillus doriferus (Afro-Australian Fur Seal) · A. pusillus pusillus (Brown Fur Seal) · A. townsendi (Lower Californian Fur Seal) · A. tropicalis (Amsterdam Island Fur Seal)
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- Checklist of CITES Species CITES, WCMC url p. 100.
- Checklist of CITES Species: a reference to the appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES url p. 151, p. 66, p. 67, p. 178.
- Checklist of mammals listed in the CITES appendices and in EC Regulation 338/97 JNCC url p. 81, p. 56.
- Current bibliography for aquatic sciences and fisheries. London, Taylor & Francis ltd. url p. 528.
- Extinct and vanishing mammals of the western hemisphere, with the marine species of all the oceans, by Grover M. Allen. .. [Cambridge? Mass.]American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, 1942. url p. 432, p. 435.
- Final environmental impact statement on the negotiation of a regime for conservation of Antarctic marine living resources / Department of State. Washington: Department of State, 1978. url p. 20, p. 22, p. 27, p. 28, p. 30, p. 5.
- Fishery bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service: url p. 255, p. 256, p. 577.
- History of North American pinnipeds: a monograph of the walruses, sea-lions, sea-bears and seals of North America / by Joel Asaph Allen. Washington: G.P.O., 1880. url p. 202, p. 204.
- Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76: under the command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S. and Captain Frank Turle Thomson, R.N. / prepared under the superintendence of Sir C. Wyville Thomson. Edinburgh: Neill, 1880-1895. url , p. 138, p. 139, p. 142, p. 144, p. 145, p. 159, p. 162, p. 180, p. 181, p. 183, p. 184, p. 186, p. 190, p. 191, p. 195, p. 197, p. 198, p. 199, p. 200, p. 36, p. 42, p. 43, p. 44, p. 45, p. 46, p. 47, p. 48, p. 50, p. 51, p. 83.
- Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899. J. B. Hatcher in charge. Edited by William B. Scott. Princeton, The University, 1901-32 [v. 1, 1903] url p. 122.
- Review of information regarding the conservation of living resources of the Antarctic marine ecosystem: final report / John L. Bengtson. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Marine Mammal Commission,  url p. 11, p. 118, p. 139.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 114, p. 448, p. 522.
- The Diversity of the Seas: a regional approach. WCMC Biodiversity Series 4 WCMC url p. 116.
- The Marine Mammal Commission compendium of selected treaties, international agreements, and other relevant documents on marine resources, wildlife, and the environment: first update / compiled by Richard L. Wallace. [Bethesda, Md.: For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs.], 1997. url p. 36, p. 37.
- The marine mammals in the Anatomical Museum of the University of Edinburgh / by Sir Wm. Turner. London: Macmillan, 1912. url p. 177.
- The natural history and behavior of the California sea lion / by Richard S. Peterson and George A. Bartholomew. [Stillwater, Okla.]American Society of Mammalogists, 1967. url p. 47, p. 77.
- The principles of applied zoology, by Robert A. Wardle. London, Longmans, Greem, and co., 1929. url p. 341.
- Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 21 1986 [San Diego]: The Society, 1905-1989. url p. 112, p. 121, p. 125.
- World Checklist of Threatened Mammals JNCC url p. 117, p. 118.
- Aurioles, D. & Trillmich, F. 2008. Arctocephalus gazella. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 30January2012.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 29, 2008:
- Australian Antarctic Data Centre: APIS - Antarctic Pack Ice Seals 1994-1999, plus historical data from the 1980's
- Australian Antarctic Data Centre: Macquarie Island Fur Seal Database
- Australian Antarctic Data Centre: Seabirds of the Southern and South Indian Ocean
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Marine Mammal Collection
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 105687
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-180630
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14156414
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 180630
- IUCN ID: 192466
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2295
- Mean = 814.370 meters (2,671.818 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,159.870 based on 12,775 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Aurioles, D. & Trillmich, F. 2008. Arctocephalus gazella. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012. [back]