Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Golden Eagle, American war bird, bird of Jupiter, Black Eagle, brown eagle, calumet bird, calumet eagle, Canadian eagle, gray eagle, jackrabbit eagle, king of birds, mountain eagle, ring-tailed eagle, Ringtail, royal eagle, war bird, white-tailed eagle
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Águila real, Ãguila real
Common Names in Swedish:
: Golden feathering on nape · Plumage almost entirely
dark brown, without white in underwing coverts · Two pale
· Golden band on upperwing coverts
Immature : Plumage almost entirely dark brown · White bases to outer secondaries and inner primaries produces oval , white patch · White tail with broad, crisp , dark terminal band
Subadult : Plumage gradually darkens to resemble that of adult, with white in wings disappearing
About 35 to 38 inches long, with a wingspan of 72 to 96 inches. Adults weigh about 56 ounces .
Solitude and the golden eagle seem to go hand in hand. Open country is the preferred habitat but it can be found over forests during migration. Arid , sloping valleysides, benchlands or flatlands cut by canyons , gullies or rock outcrops are preferred over flat, featureless terrain. Tundra and alpine country, deserts, southern coastal areas, eastern bogs , logged openings, grasslands, and early seral stages of forested lands , are all used. Thick, extensive areas of coniferous forests are usually avoided, except perhaps by birds of passage . Cliffs with ledges for nesting are an important part of the summer habitat, but trees will also be used as nest sites. In general, hilly or mountainous terrain is preferred over flatlands due in part to the advantageous lift gained from the air currents over broken terrain. Winter habitats include the arid, shrub-steppe country of the mid-western states and in general are similar in physical appearance to the summering areas. During migration, mountain ridges are preferred in order to benefit from drafts and other air currents. Key attributes of the habitats include nesting cliff ledges or large trees, perches such as large trees, knolls or large rocks, and broken terrain subject to varied air currents providing lift.
Vegetation: northern temperate grasslands, arid montane scrubs, arid lowland scrubs • Maximum Elevation: 2,700 meters • Foraging Strata: Terrestrial • Center of Abundance: Upper subtropical: higher slopes, 500-1,600 m.; subtropics. • Sensitivity to Disturbance: Medium
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,632 meters (0 to 11,916 feet).
List of Habitats
- 1 Forest
- 1.1 Forest - Boreal
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.5 Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 3.7 Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
- 3.8 Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
- 4 Grassland
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate
- 4.5 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 6 Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs , mountain peaks)
- 8 Desert
- 8.1 Desert - Hot [more info]
On average, an adult
eagle consumes eight to 12 ounces
(227 to 340
) of food per day throughout the year. Consumption
is not likely
to be consistent each day, with periods of gorging versus fasting,
depending upon availability of prey
. Winter consumption is likely
greater than during the summer.
In terms of total biomass , the principal foods of golden eagles are rodents, hares and rabbits - black-tailed jackrabbits in the NCA. The mammalian component of eagle diets as noted from many studies, varies from 70 to 97 percent, with birds variably being another major component. A review of North American literature revealed that 52 species of mammals, 48 birds, five reptiles and two fishes have been recorded in the diets of the golden eagle. Insects, such as the Mormon cricket, are also documented as a prey item.Specifically, some species documented include black-tailed jackrabbit, white-tailed jackrabbit, Nuttall's cottontail, yellow-bellied marmot, hoary marmot, arctic ground squirrel, ground squirrels (Spermophilus species), prairie dog, snowshoe hare, mule deer, white-tailed deer, Dall sheep (lambs), pronghorn (fawns), young mountain goats, mountain sheep and mountain caribou, livestock (young or carrion ), red fox, arctic fox (young), coyote, opossum, skunk, red squirrel, muskrat, mink, woodchuck, wood rat , microtines, deer mice, whooping crane, wild turkey, trumpeter swan, great blue heron, ptarmigan, grouse, pheasant, gray partridge, chukar, sage grouse, horned lark, red-tailed hawk, broad-winged hawk, barred owl, common raven, common crow, common loon, American bittern, black duck, various snake species (particularly gopher snakes), horned lizard, leopard frog , box turtle, and fish such as suckers and perch. Carrion is also eaten and includes a wide range of species including domestic animals that died for reasons other than eagle attack.Much has been written about golden eagle attacks on domestic stock. That such depredation occurs is undoubtedly true, but the degree depends upon the availability of natural food supply, ranching practices, weather, and a variety of other factors . Sound animal management practices reduce the losses to eagles to very low levels.
The wing beat of the golden eagle is slow and ponderous in nature. It is more shallow than that of the bald eagle. Soaring golden eagles hold their wings flat or in a slight dihedral , suggestive of turkey vultures. It is the soaring flight that is seen so frequently. Because of its heavy reliance on mammals for food, the golden eagle hunts both early in the day or late in the afternoon, corresponding with peaks of activity in its food supply. During the nesting season , hunting will certainly go on all day as the demands of the young increase. These eagles will gorge and then fast for days, thus enabling them to survive brief periods of limited food supply. Kills are often made in areas of updraft winds, allowing birds heavily weighted with prey to take off after making the kill or gorging heavily. The hunting tactics can be grouped into the following ten strategies:
Perch and Wait - elevated sites are used to search the terrain. Perches include trees , power poles , rock bluffs , fences and so forth. Ground Perching - occasionally, perching on a mound or low rock is used, followed by a flying attack once the prey is spotted Low Level Flight - birds will fly quickly or slowly, low over the terrain, often changing direction and surprising their quarry. This technique is particularly useful over open terrain where the air currents and vagaries of the landscape are used to their advantage. High Level Flight - this is primarily soaring above the ground at varying heights and descending rapidly to make the strike . Aerial Attack - other birds will be attacked in mid flight. Flushing - this consists of wing flapping, screaming, and walking around bushes or other places where prey is known to be hiding. Cooperative Hunting - two birds will use a variety of the above styles to flush prey towards the partner who will then make the final strike. Piracy - eagles have been seen robbing food from one another or from other raptors . They have also snatched ground squirrels flushed by humans walking across a pasture. Carrion Eating - the golden eagle has been observed feeding on carcasses along with bald eagles, ravens, crows and magpies. Strike, Kill, and Consumption - the approach to the prey may be with flapping flight or a descent followed by a rapid glide or combinations of these. The strike is often upwind and usually in areas of updrafts. As the quarry is reached, a foot is extended and the prey clutched tightly. The second foot may also be used. If the animal is small, it is simply lifted up and flight continues unabated. Larger animals may cause an abrupt halt to the flight as both eagle and prey struggle on the ground. The head is grabbed as quickly as possible and then the other talons are driven into the lungs or soft parts of the body, causing the animal to bleed to death or die from lack of oxygen. The beak is generally not used for killing or fighting with the prey. Once all struggling has ceased, the prey is torn apart with the beak.
The home ranges are large and defense would be impossible. However, individual nest sites are spaced apart and maintained with the use of some of the aforementioned flight behavior. Aerial attacks are also made in order to drive away intruders if they venture too close to the nest.During the nesting season, territorial defense is evident. Bald eagles will be escorted or chased from the nesting area. At other times such as in winter, bald and golden eagles may share the same roost tree and will certainly tolerate one another when gorging at large carcasses. Golden eagles are felt to be dominant in carrion-feeding situations. Nesting golden eagles seldom tolerate the presence of another raptor nest, close to their own nest and may opportunistically kill them during encounters . Nests as close as 0.7 miles (1.1 kilometers) apart have been documented, but internest distances of up to 6 miles (9.6 kilometers) have been documented. In the NCA most golden eagle nest about 3-4 miles apart. Golden eagles are felt to be wary and shy of human beings and will tend to avoid contact
Although the flight displays of the Golden Eagle resemble those of
buteos, the relationship
is rather less certain. The
following displays have been described and may have some function
of maintaining the pair bond or territorial
- High Circling/Mock Attacks - several birds may circle together and engage in aerial chases, dives, rolls and presentation of talons, synchronized flight and rapid wingbeat flight.
- Sky Dance - this is also referred to as "undulating flight" as the birds fly up and down with amplifications that increase with higher flight. Other flight antics may be used as well such, as rolls and dives. Most observers feel that this is used as a territorial defense mechanism.
- Tumbling - this consists of near-vertical high-speed descents with folded wings . Sometimes, two birds will lock talons and tumble towards earth, only to break free into flight seconds before they might strike the ground .
Nest sites may be on cliff faces , dirt banks, in deciduous or coniferous trees , on the ground or on man-made structures. The choice of location varies geographically and clearly depends upon the availability of certain features. Cliff faces and large trees are the most commonly-used nest sites and some pairs will alternate between the two types . Where possible, sites which avoid either excessive heat or excessive cold are chosen. Southerly-facing sites at northern latitudes are warmer and northerly-facing sites at southern latitudes are cooler and there is some evidence to indicate that there are preferences shown where the opportunity arises. Tree nests are often near the edges of openings such as fields or clear cuts . Nest sites may be used for many years by a succession of occupants.
Typically, the nest is comprised of large, dry sticks that are gathered from the ground or may be broken from a tree. The nest lining material varies geographically but it is of much finer material than the structural items. Rootlets , eucalyptus leaves, moss, rabbit fur, shrub twigs , yucca roots , dried grass , and conifer branchlets have all been used to line nests. Curious items that have been incorporated into nests include cow bones, deer antlers, barbed wire, burlap bags , rags , paper and rubbish and even a hat. Nests vary in size but may initially be around three feet (0.9 meters) in diameter. Over the years, additions and repairs may result in nests as large as eight feet (2.4 meters) in diameter. The height may vary from several feet and beyond. The building of several nests is common with up to 12 nests being built by a single pair. Pairs averaged six nests in Idaho.The clutch size varies from one to five (rarely) and more typically two to three eggs. The eggs are about 3.1 inches (78.7 millimeters) long and 2.3 inches (58.4 millimeters) wide. The base color varies from white to cream and is variably spotted or blotched with browns, chestnut-red, or pale gray. Some may be almost unmarked and they are non-glossy. The laying interval is likely between 90 and 120 hours with incubation starting as the first egg is laid. Although the golden eagle is single-brooded, replacement clutches may be laid in the event of loss of the original. The interval before relaying varies from 24 to 28 days. Egg-laying may begin during February at the extreme southern parts of the range while in the north, egg production may not occur until mid-June. March and April are common months for laying by non-migratory birds.Incubation is primarily by the female with food being brought to her by the male. She feeds at a nearby plucking site. The male will relieve the female for periods during the afternoon but she probably does all of the incubating during the evening hours. Brooding of the young is by the female and occasionally by the male. Fresh greenery is brought to the nest by both sexes.The incubation period is from 41 to 45 days, although it is variably reported in the literature. Earlier estimates of 30 to 35 days were likely incorrect. The long interval between the laying of each egg leads to young of different sizes. Fledging occurs at 72 to 84 days, but has been reported as 59 to 70 days. At about seven days, the nestling can sit up, stretch its neck and chirp for food. At 14 days, crawling is possible and the white down is well-developed. By 28 days, the chicks can waddle, hiss and raise their wings in threat displays. By 42 days, hostile threat capabilities are much better developed and the young can feed themselves. At 49 days, they will use both feet and wings in order to move around. By days 56 through 65, strength increases, mobility improves continually and vocalizations have become more complex . Mantling over prey is evident. The female sleeps away from the nest from about day 40 onwards. Siblicide (killing of ones brother or sister) is well-documented in the golden eagle, and it generally occurs when the young are less than 21 days old.Flying young remain dependent upon their parents for about 11 weeks after fledging. In migrant populations, the entire family may begin migration together whereas in more southerly resident populations, the young may remain well into the fall or winter near the parents' territory. The existence of what appear to be family groups on the winter range suggests that the families could stay intact until the start of the next breeding cycle.The breeding success for golden eagles is variable and probably follows major food source fluctuations. The number of young fledged per nest varies from 1.2 to 1.8 in different parts of the United States.
The vocalizations are limited and variously generalized as screams, yelps or yaps. When close to one another, the adults will utter slow yelps that have been phonetically described as "kee-yelp, che-owp"or "ki-ah." Single syllable "kleek" or mellow ''Culp'' sounds are described. The "culp" notes may be given by birds of all ages. Captive, restrained birds give a shrill "ki-ki-ki-ki" scream. "Kaa kaa kaa kaa culp culp culp" sounds may be given as adults approach the nest with food and shriller versions may be given by the eaglet in the nest. Over 5,000 "yelps" were given by one eaglet after being given food and before showing any interest in eating it. Screams have been described as low, rasping "kee-au-augh", while other vocalizations include cheeps, grunts , "boop" notes and clucky notes. One female was said to have sung a melodious song reminiscent of that of the wild turkey. Eaglet sounds are variations of the yelping and "ki-ki-ki-ki" notes of the adults, but at different pitches. Interestingly, different observers have used adjectives as disparate as "rather pathetic" to "real blistering serenades" to describe different vocalizations of the golden eagle.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Seebohm, 1890
- Sharpe, 1874
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Infraorder: Falconides () - Sharpe, 1874
- Suborder: Accipitres () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Order: Accipitriformes () - Sharpe, 1874
- Superorder: Falconimorphae () - Seebohm, 1890
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus, 1758)
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 24-Jun-1996
Members of the genus Aquila
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 25 species and subspecies in this genus:
(Spanish Imperial Eagle) · (Cassin's Hawk-Eagle) · A. africanus (Cassin's Hawk Eagle) · (Wedge-Tailed Eagle) · (Wedge-Tailed Eagle) · (Golden Eagle) · (Golden Eagle) · (Golden Eagle) · A. clanga (Greater Spotted Eagle) · (Bonelli's Eagle) · A. fasciatus (Bonelli's Eagle) · (Gurney's Eagle) · A. hastata (Indian Spotted Eagle) · (Eastern Imperial Eagle) · A. heliaca adalberti (Spanish Imperial Eagle) · A. heliaca heliaca (Eastern Imperial Eagle) · (Steppe Eagle) · (Steppe Eagle) · A. pennata (Scaleless Dragonfish) · A. pomarina (Lesser Spotted Eagle) · A. pomarina pomarina (Lesser Spotted Eagle) · (African Tawny-Eagle) · (African Tawny-Eagle) · (Verreaux's Eagle) · A. wahlbergi (Wahlberg's Eagle)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A biological investigation of the Athabaska-Mackenzie region. By Edward A. Preble. .. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1908. url p. 358, p. 559, p. 563.
- A biological investigation of the Hudson Bay region. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1902. url .
- A checklist of the vertebrate animals of Kansas / George D. Potts, Joseph T. Collins. [Lawrence, Kan.]: Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 1991. url p. 8.
- A distributional list of the birds of Montana, with notes on the migration and nesting of the better known species, by Aretas A. Saunders. Berkeley, Calif., The Club, 1921. url p. 187, p. 64.
- A faunal investigation of Prince Edward County, Ontario / Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1941. url p. 43.
- A first book upon the birds of Oregon and Washington; a pocket guide and pupil's assistant in a study of most of the land birds and a few of the water birds of these states. By William Rogers Lord. Portland, Ore., W. R. Lord, 1913 [c1902] url p. 271.
- A geographic classification of Neotropical mammals. 36 1958 [Chicago]Chicago Natural History Museum, 1958. url p. 622.
- A guide to the birds of Nepal Christopher Helm (Publishers) Ltd. url p. 119, p. 42.
- A history of the birds of Colorado, London, Witherby & Co., 1912. url , .
- A list of the birds of New Hampshire. By Glover M. Allen Manchester, N.H., Nature press, 1903. url p. 100, p. 206.
- A manual of North American birds. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1900. url .
- A manual of the vertebrate animals of the northern United States: including the district north and east of the Ozark mountains, south of the Laurentian hills, north of the southern boundary of Virginia, and east of the Missouri river, inclusive of marine species / Chicago:A. C. McClurg, 1916. url .
- A monograph of the pheasants / 1 1918 London, England: Published under the auspices of the New York Zoological Society by Witherby & Co., 1918-1922. url p. 15.
- A popular handbook of the birds of the United States and Canada / Boston: Little, Brown, 1921. url .
- A popular handbook of the ornithology of the United States and Canada: based on Nuttall's Manual / by Montague Chamberlain. Boston: Little, B., & Co., 1903. url p. 15, p. 417.
- A preliminary catalog of the birds of Missouri / St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis, 1907. url .
- A preliminary list of the birds found in Vermont / by George H. Perkins; assisted by Clifton D. Howe. Albany: Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co., 1901. url , p. 102.
- A preliminary report on the biology of Harding County, northwestern South Dakota / by Stephen S. Visher. Pierre, S.D.: State Publishing Co., 1914. url p. 76.
- A preliminary review of the birds of Nebraska, with synopses, Omaha, 1904 url , .
- A study of the incubation periods of birds; what determines their lengths, Denver, Col., The Kendrick-Bellamy Co., 1917. url .
- A supplement to The birds of Rhode Island / by Reginald Heber Howe, Jr. and Edward Sturtevant. Middletown, R.I.: [s.n.], 1903. url p. 15.
- A synoptical list of the Accipitres (diurnal birds of prey) Comprising species and subspecies, described up to 1919, with their characters and distribution, by H. Kirke Swann. London, J. Wheldon, 1920. url p. 64, p. 64.
- A systematic list of the birds of California / by Joseph Grinnell. Hollywood: Cooper Ornithological Club, 1912. url p. 10.
- A thousand-mile walk to the Gulf, Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin company, 1916. url p. 199, p. 199.
- American bird magazine, ornithology. Worcester, Mass.: C.K. Reed, 1903-1906. url p. 194, p. 217.
- American ornithology, for home and school. [Worcester, Mass.: Charles K. Reed], 1901-. url p. 217.
- An account of the birds and mammals of the San Jacinto area of southern California with remarks upon the behavior of geographic races on the margins of their habitats by J. Grinnell and H.S. Swarth. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1913. url p. 221, p. 236.
- An early pleistocene avifauna from Inglis, Florida / by Gail Elaine Speaker Carr. 1981. url , p. 53, p. 55, p. 58, p. 59, p. 62.
- An ecological characterization of Coastal Maine (north and east of Cape Elizabeth) / Stewart I. Fefer and Patricia S. Schettig: principal investigators. Newton Corner, Mass.: Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region, 1980. url .
- An environmental profile of the Black Sea Coast WCMC url p. 101, p. 31, p. 33, p. 37, p. 38, p. 63.
- An ethnographic collection from the Northern Ute in the Field Museum of Natural History / James W. VanStone. Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1997. url p. 14.
- Animal and plant life in Oklahoma, Norman, 1917. url .
- Animal life in the Yosemite; an account of the mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in a cross-section of the Sierra Nevada, by Joseph Grinnell and Tracy Irwin Storer. .. Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 1924. url , , p. 17, p. 17, p. 292, p. 292, p. 743, p. 743.
- Annals of the Carnegie Museum. [Pittsburgh]: Published by authority of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institute, 1901- url p. 605.
- Annotated CITES Appendices and Reservations CITES url p. 65.
- Annotated list of the birds of Oneida County, N.Y. and of the West Canada Creek Valley. [Utica, N.Y.?]1912. url .
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url p. 675, p. 90.
- Annual report of the Laguna Marine Laboratory / Pomona College. Claremont, Calif.: Dept. of Biology, Pomona College, 1912- url p. 51.
- Annual report of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture. Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Co., state printers, 1916-1918. url p. 242.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 164.
- Annual report. Edmonton url p. 317.
- Ardea. Amsterdam, etc., Nederlandse Ornithlogische Unie, etc. url p. 95.
- Assessment of the Red Rock River subbasin and wetlands of the Centennial Valley / Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c2009. url p. 13.
- Audubon the naturalist; a history of his life and time, by Francis Hobart Herrick. .. New YorkD. Appleton-Century Company, incorporated, 1938. url p. 482.
- Audubon, the naturalist; a history of his life and time, by Francis Hobart Herrick. New York, Appleton[c1917] url p. 476.
- Biltmore lectures on sylviculture / by C. A. Schenck. Albany, N.Y.: Brandow Printing Co., 1907. url p. 12.
- Biosphere Reserves, Compilation 5, October 1990: programme on man and the biosphere (MAB) IUCN url p. 11.
- Bird blow flies (Protocalliphora) in North America (Diptera: Calliphoridae), with notes on the Palearctic species / Curtis W. Sabrosky, Gordon F. Bennett, and Terry L. Whitworth. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, c1989. url p. 233.
- Bird homes. The nests, eggs and breeding habits of the land birds breeding in the eastern United States; with hints on the rearing and photographing of young birds, New York, Doubleday & McClure Co., 1900. url .
- Bird homes: The nests, eggs and breeding habits of the land birds breeding in the eastern United States with hints on the rearing and photographing of young birds / New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1903. url , .
- Bird homes: the nests, eggs and breeding habits of the land birds breeding in the eastern United States, with hints on the rearing and photographing of young birds / New York: Doubleday & McClure, 1920, c1904. url , .
- Bird homes: the nests, eggs, and breeding habits of the land birds breeding in the eastern United States; with hints on the rearing and photographing of young birds / New York: Doubleday, Page, 1905, c1904. url .
- Birds in Kansas / Max C. Thompson & Charles Ely. 1 Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History: c1989- url p. 158, p. 395, p. xi.
- Birds in their haunts, by the late C. A. Johns. London, E. P. Dutton, 1909. url .
- Birds of America; editor-in-chief, T. Gilbert Pearson; consulting editor, John Burroughs; artists, R.I. Brasher, R. Bruce Horsfall [and] Henry Thurston. New York, The University Society, 1923. url p. 82.
- Birds of Arkansas. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1911. url , , .
- Birds of California: an introduction to more than three hundred common birds of the state and adjacent islands, with a supplementary list of rare migrants, accidental visitants, and hypothetical subspecies / Chicago: A.C. McClurg, 1912, c1903. url .
- Birds of California; an introduction to more than three hundred common birds of the state and adjacent islands, with a supplementary list of rare migrants, accidental visitants, and hypothetical subspecies, Chicago, A.C. McClurg, 1916. url , .
- Birds of Darjeeling and India, by L.J. Mackintosh. Calcutta, Printed by J.N. Banerjee & son, 1915. url .
- Birds of Labrador / Boston: Boston Society of Natural History, 1907. url .
- Birds of Labrador / by Charles W. Townsend and Glover M. Allen. Boston: Printed for the Society, 1907. url p. 367.
- Birds of Massachusetts and other New England states / [Norwood, Ma.: Printed by Berwick and Smith Company], 1925-1929 url , p. 144, p. 445.
- Birds of New York / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1914. url , .
- Birds of New York / by Elon Howard Eaton. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1910-1914. url p. 559, p. 675, p. 677, p. 90, p. 90.
- Birds of New York Albany, University of the State of New York, 1910-14 url p. 90.
- Birds of New York, Albany, University of the State of New York, 1910-14. url , , .
- Birds of North Carolina, by T. Gilbert Pearson, C. S. Brimley and H. H. Brimley. Raleigh, Edwards & Broughton printing co., state printers, 1919. url p. 170.
- Birds of South Carolina, Charleston, S.C., [The Daggett Printing Co.]1910. url , , .
- Birds of South Carolina, by Arthur Trezevant Wayne. With an introduction by the editor. Charleston, S.C., [The Daggett Printing Co.]1910. url , p. 75.
- Birds of South Dakota. By William H. Over and Craig S. Thoms. Vermillion [!]: University of South Dakota, 1920 [i.e. 1921] url p. 86.
- Birds of South Dakota. Vermillion, University of South Dakota, 1920 [i.e. 1921] url .
- Birds of a Maryland farm: a local study of economic ornithology / Washington; G.P.O., 1902. url .
- Birds of eastern Canada / Ottawa: F.A. Acland, 1922. url .
- Birds of eastern Canada / by P. A. Taverner. Ottawa: Acland, 1922. url p. 129, p. 129.
- Birds of eastern Canada / by P.A. Taverner. Ottawa: Canada Dept. of Mines, Geological Survey, 1919. url p. 123.
- Birds of eastern Canada, by P. A. Taverner. Ottawa, J. de L. Tache?, printer, 1919. url p. 123.
- Birds of eastern Canada, by P.A. Taverner. Ottawa, J. de L. Taché, Printer, 1919. url p. 123.
- Birds of eastern North America, Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & Company, 1912. url , .
- Birds of the Chukchi Peninsula and Wrangel Island = (Ptitsy Chukotskogo poluostrova i ostrova Vrangelya) / L.A. Portenko; translated from Russian [by P.M. Rao]. New Delhi: Published for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., by Amerind Pub. Co., 1981- url p. 341.
- Birds of the Huachuca mountains, Arizona, by Harry S. Swarth. Los Angeles, Cal.: The Club, 1904. url p. 67, p. 7.
- Birds of the Kansas City region / [St. Louis, Mo.: Academy of Sciences of St. Louis]1919. url .
- Birds of the Kansas City region [by] Harry Harris. [St. Louis, Mo.]1919. url p. 264, p. 264, p. 359, p. 359.
- Birds of the New York city region, by Ludlow Griscom, assistant curator of ornithology, with the cooperation of the Linnæan society of New York. .. New York, The Museum, 1923. url p. 193, p. 390.
- Birds that hunt and are hunted: life histories of one hundred and seventy birds of prey, game birds and water-fowls, by Neltje Blanchan [pseud.] with introduction by G. O. Shields (Coquina) with many photographic illustrations in color and in black and white. New York: Doubleday, Page & company, 1908,  url p. 324.
- Birds that hunt and are hunted; life histories of one hundred and seventy birds of prey, game birds and water-fowls, Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page, 1912 [c1904] url .
- Birds; a miscellaneous collection of 37 pamphlets about birds. Collected and privately bound by Alvin Seale, 1914. v.p., 1910-1913 url p. 34, p. 45.
- Brigham Young University science bulletin. 10 1969 Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, [1955-1976] url camenzind, page 4, p. 5, p. 68.
- British birds in their haunts, by the late Rev. C.A. Johns. .. ed., rev., and annotated, by J.A. Owen. .. Illustrated with 64 coloured plates (256 figures) by William Foster. .. With a glossary of common and provincial names and te London, E.P. Dutton & Co., 1909. url p. 152.
- British birds in their haunts. .. Edited, revised, and annotated by J.A. Owen. .. Illustrated with 64 coloured plates by William Foster. With a glossary of common and provincial names and of technical terms. London, Dutton url p. 152.
- British journal of entomology and natural history. [London]: British Entomological and Natural History Society, 1988- url , p. 121.
- Bulletin / Illinois Natural History Survey. Urbana, State of Illinois, Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural History Survey Division, 1918-1985. url p. 459.
- Bulletin / Peabody Museum of Natural History. 1972 New Haven: Peabody Museum of Natural History, url fig. 14.
- Bulletin / Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1971. url p. 100, p. 112, p. 119, p. 144, p. 164, p. 18, p. 185, p. 221, p. 308, p. 361, p. 37, p. 408.
- Bulletin / State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut. [Hartford]: The Survey, 1904- url p. 194, p. 278, p. 361, p. 81.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Biological Survey. Washington: G.P.O., 1904-1907. url , .
- Bulletin / University of Montana. Missoula: University of Montana, 1901-1910. url p. 305, p. 46.
- Bulletin / Vermont Bird Club. [Rutland, Vt.]: The Club, 1906-1914 url p. 20, p. 36.
- Bulletin of the Bird Club of Princeton University. Princeton, N.J.: The Club, 1901. url , p. 27, p. 48.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1950-1977. url p. 136, p. 142, p. 144, p. 146, p. 149, p. 163, p. 169, p. 170, p. 172, p. 208, p. 211.
- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1971- url p. 100, p. 11, p. 2.
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url , p. 139, p. 153, p. 184, p. 190, p. 201, p. 206, p. 209, p. 218, p. 255, p. 284, p. 299, p. 3, p. 306, p. 321, p. 335, p. 47, p. 85.
- Cassinia. Philadelphia: Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, 1901- url p. 44, p. 47, p. 59, p. 71.
- Catalogue of British Columbia birds. Victoria, B.C., Printed by R. Wolfenden, 1904. url , .
- Catalogue of Canadian birds, Ottawa, Government Printing Bureau, 1909. url .
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 337, p. 602, p. 668.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 337, p. 668, p. 719.
- Catalogue of the Edward E. Ayer Ornithological Library. .. 16 1926 Chicago, 1926. url p. 78.
- Check list of the vertebrates of Ontario and catalogue of specimens in the biological section of the Provincial museum. Birds. Toronto, L. K. Cameron, printer to the king's most excellent Majesty, 1905. url p. 42.
- Check-list and bibliography on the occurrence of insects in birds' nests. Ames, Iowa State College Press url p. 166, p. 171, p. 313, p. 399, p. 400.
- Check-list of North American birds / prepared by a committee of the American ornithologists' union. Lancaster, Pa.: The Union, 1931. url p. 379, p. 434, p. 485.
- Check-list of North American birds, New York, American ornithologists' union, 1910. url .
- Check-list of North American birds. [Ithaca, N.Y.]1957. url p. 112, p. 662.
- Check-list of North American birds: the species of birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands / prepared by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature of the American Orni Lawrence, Kan.: American Ornithologists' Union, 1983. url p. 120, p. 803.
- Check-list of birds of the world. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1931-1987. url p. 381.
- Checklist of CITES Species CITES, WCMC url p. 95, p. 96.
- Checklist of CITES Species: a reference to the appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES url p. 57, p. 58, p. 65.
- Checklist of birds listed in the CITES appendices and in EC Regulation 338/97 JNCC url p. 242, p. 32.
- Checklists for the CORINE Biotopes Programme and its application in the PHARE countries of Central and East Europe: including comparisons with relevant conventions and agreements on the conservation of European species and habitats EC url p. 100, p. 34.
- Cliff-nesting raptor survey of the Sioux District, Custer National Forest: 1994 / submitted by Paul Hendricks and Keith H. Dueholm; a report to USDA Forest Service, Custer National Forest. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c1995. url p. 11, p. 4, p. 47, p. 48, p. 49, p. 50, p. 51, p. 52, p. 53, p. 54, p. 55, p. 56, p. 57, p. 58, p. 59, p. 60, p. 61, p. 62, p. 63, p. 64, p. 65, p. 66, p. 67, p. 68, p. 69, p. 70, p. 71, p. 72, p. 73, p. 74, p. 75, p. 76, p. 77, p. 78, p. 79, p. 80, p. 81, p. 82, p. 83, p. 84, p. 85, p. 86, p. 87, p. 88, p. 89, p. 90, p. 91, p. 92, p. 93, p. 94, p. 95, p. 96.
- Cliff-nesting raptors in the North and South Cave Hills, Harding County, South Dakota: 1997 inventory of active sites in 1996 / Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, 1997. url , .
- Color key to North American birds, with bibliographical appendix, by Frank M. Chapman. .. with upwards of 800 drawings, by Chester A. Reed, B.S. New York, D. Appleton & Company, 1912. url p. 136, p. 270, p. 270, p. 334.
- Color key to North American birds; with bibliographical appendix. New York, D. Appleton, 1912. url , .
- Comparative zoology, structural and systematic, for use in schools and colleges, by James Orton. Cincinnati, American book company url p. 334.
- Contributions to avian palaeontology from the Pacific coast of North America, by Loye Holmes Miller. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1912. url p. 113, p. 78, p. 78, p. 84, p. 84, p. 92, p. 93, p. 94, p. 94, p. 95.
- Directory of Wetlands of International Importance. IUCN url p. 194, p. 288, p. 518, p. 582, p. 585, p. 593, p. 594, p. 602, p. 603, p. 657, p. 759.
- Economic mammalogy, by Junius Henderson. .. and Elberta L. Craig. .. Baltimore, Md., C.C. Thomas, 1932. url p. 295, p. 361.
- Effects of highways on wildlife and fish with special reference to Montana a ProCite literature collection / Bozeman, Mont.: Fish and Wildlife Management Program, Montana State University, 2001 url , , , .
- Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Sanctuary: proposed estuarine sanctuary grant award for Elkhorn Slough, Monterey County, California / Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979? url .
- Essentials of biology presented in problems, Cincinnati [etc.]American Book Company url .
- Ethnozoology of the Tewa Indians, by Junius Henderson and John Peabody Harrington. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1914. url p. 37, p. 37, p. 73.
- Facts relating to the history of Groton, Massachusetts, by Samuel Abbott Green. .. [Cambridge, J. Wilson and Son]1912-14. url p. 35.
- Familiar wild birds / [illustrations by A. Thornburn and others]. London: Cassel, 1903. url p. 33.
- Fauna of New England, 11: list of the aves / by Glover M. Allen. Boston: Society of Natural History, 1909. url p. 102, p. 5.
- Fauna of New England. Boston, Printed for the [Boston] Society [of Natural History] from the Gurdon Saltonstall Fund, 1904-25. url p. 102.
- Fauna of New England. List of the Araneida. Boston, For Society, 1908. url , p. 5.
- Fauna of New England. by Glover M. Allen. Boston: Society of Natural History, 1909. url p. 102.
- Fauna of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula, by Olaus J. Murie. Invertebrates and fishes collected in the Aleutians, 1936-38, by Victor B. Scheffer. Washington, Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1959 url , p. 109.
- Field book of birds of the southwestern United States, by sqther E. Wyman. .. and Elizabeth F. Burnell. .. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1925. url p. 104, p. 297.
- Field notes on amphibians, reptiles and birds of northern Humboldt County, Nevada, with a discussion of some of the faunal features of the region, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1912. url , .
- Final environmental impact statement: proposed estuarine sanctuary grant award to the state of New York for a Hudson River estuarine sanctuary / Albany, N.Y.: The Department,  url p. 51.
- Final report. v. 1-8. Trenton, 1888-1917. url p. 577.
- Fishery circular / U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries. [Washington]: The Bureau, 1931-1939. url p. 51.
- Game birds. Life histories of one hundred and seventy birds of prey, game birds and water-fowls Garden City, N.Y.Doubleday, Page, 1922, c1917. url .
- General function of the gall bladder from the evolutionary standpoint, by Frank W. Gorham and Andrew Conway Ivy. 22 1938 Chicago, 1938. url p. 183.
- General zoölogy; practical, systematic and comparative; being a revision and rearrangement of Orton's Comparative zoölogy, by Charles Wright Dodge... Cincinnati [etc]American book company url p. 168, p. 497.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1986 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 20, p. 213, p. 263, p. 77.
- Handbook of birds of eastern North America; with introductory chapters on the study of birds in nature, London, D. Appleton and Company, 1912. url , .
- Handbook of birds of the western United States: including the Great Plains, Great Basin, Pacific Slope, and lower Rio Grande Valley / by Florence Merriam Bailey. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1915, c1902. url p. 506.
- Homing with the birds; the history of a lifetime of personal experience with the birds, Garden City, Doubleday, Page & Company, 1919. url .
- IUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas IUCN url p. 141, p. 281.
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 72.
- Indigenous and Traditional Peoples and Protected Areas: principles, guidelines and case studies IUCN url p. 71.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. LondonPublished for the International Council by the Royal Society of London1901-1920 url p. 107, p. 122, p. 1353, p. 57.
- Invitation to birds; a few of the common birds of Illinois, an invitation to know and enjoy them. Illus. by the author. Springfield, 1948. url p. 63.
- Journal of entomology and zoology. Claremont, Calif., U.S.A.: Pomona College Dept. of Zoology, [1913- url p. 51.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 15 1995 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 237, p. 239.
- Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington [etc., Washington Academy of Sciences] url p. 21.
- Joy of nature: how to observe and appreciate the great outdoors / [editor, Alma E. Guinness]. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Reader's Digest Association, c1977. url p. 327.
- Late Pleistocene vertebrates from archaeological sites in the Plain of Kom Ombo, Upper Egypt / [Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum], 1972. url p. 40.
- List of the birds of the New Haven Region / compiled by committee of Freeman F. Burr. .. [et al.]; advisory committee, Louis B. Bishop. New Haven, Conn: New Haven Bird Club:  url p. 31.
- Lund easement baseline biological inventory / Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c2001 url .
- MAB Biosphere Reserves: Site Descriptions, post compilation 5 (October 1990) UNESCO MAB Programme url , , .
- MAB Information System: Biosphere Reserves, Compilation 4, October 1986: Supplement January 1988 UNESCO, IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url .
- Mammals of the Soviet Union / V.G. Heptner, A.A. Nasimovich, and A.G. Bannikov; scientific editor, Robert S. Hoffmann. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, 1988- url p. 456.
- Management plan and conservation strategies for sage grouse in Montana - final / [Montana?]: The Group,  url .
- Management plan, Robb/Ledford wildlife management area. [Helena]:Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks,  url .
- Memoirs of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 13 1984 San Diego, Calif.: The Society, 1931-1989. url p. 267.
- Michigan bird life, a list of all the bird species known to occur in the state together with an outline of their classification and an account of the life history of each species, wtih special reference to its relation t [Lansing]Michigan Agricultural College, 1912. url .
- Michigan bird life: a list of all the bird species known to occur in the State together with an outline of their classification and an account of the life history of each species, with special reference to its relation t by Walter Bradford Barrows. Lansing: Michigan Agricultural College, 1912. url p. 284.
- Middle Missouri River wildlife study: Federal aid to fish & wildlife restoration project FW-3-R, jobs 1-B & 1-C / prepared by Kerry Constan & Dan Hook (Ecological Services Division). [Helena]: Montana Dept. of Fish, Wildlife & Parks,  url p. 88.
- Miscellaneous publication - University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History. 1965 Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1946-1996. url p. 17, p. 18, p. 2, p. 21, p. 21, p. 51.
- Miscellaneous publications / University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology. Ann Arbor, Mich.: The University, 1916- url p. 40.
- Montana Department of Fish and Game annual report: nongame surveys and inventory, January 1, 1977 - December 31, 1977 / prepared by Dennis L. Flath. [Helena, Mont.]: Montana Department of Fish and Game, 1978. url .
- Museum bulletin / Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url , p. 10, p. 106, p. 126, p. 146, p. 97.
- Natural history of the ground squirrels of California, by Joseph Grinnell and Joseph Dixon. .. Sacramento, California State Printing Office, 1918. url p. 29.
- Natural history. New York: American Museum of Natural History. url p. 152, p. 168.
- Naturalist's guide to the Americas, prepared by the Committee on the Preservation of Natural Conditions of the Ecological Society of America, with assistance from numerous organizations and individuals, assembled and edited by chairman, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1926. url p. 745, p. 745.
- Nature Reserves of the Himalaya and the Mountains of Central Asia IUCN url p. 444, p. 446, p. 448, p. 454, p. 461.
- North American birds eggs. New York: Dover Pub, . url p. 336.
- Occasional papers of the Museum of Natural History, the University of Kansas. 1990 Lawrence, Kan.: The University, 1971-1994. url p. 15.
- Osteology of birds, by R.W. Shufeldt. Albany, University of the State of New York, 1909. url p. 126, p. 166, p. 97.
- Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems / [edited by], Edward T. LaRoe. .. [et al.]. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Biological Service, 1995. url p. 338, p. 500.
- P.D. Skaar's Montana bird distribution / revised by the Montana Bird Distribution Committee. [Helena, MT]:Montana Natural Heritage Program, 1996 url p. 32.
- Pesticides monitoring journal. [Washington, D.C.: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1967-1981. url p. 37.
- Point Lobos Reseerve; State Park, California. Interpretation of a primitive landscape. Sacramento, [State Print. Off., 1954] url p. 95.
- Popular official guide to the New York zoological park / New York: New York zoological Society, 1915. url , .
- Postilla. 1983 New Haven, Conn.: Peabody Museum of Natural History, [1950?]-c2004. url fig. 17 , fig. 19 , fig. 23 , p. 13, p. 23, p. 25, p. 33.
- Potential wildlife-highway interactions at select mile-markers along Montana Department of Transportation routes an ArcView GIS analysis / Bozeman, Mont.: Fish and Wildlife Management Program, Montana State University, 2001 url .
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 276, p. 284, p. 294, p. 299, p. 4, p. 41, p. 587, p. 613, p. 626, p. 761.
- Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science. [Weatherford, etc.]Oklahoma Academy of Science. url p. 44.
- Proposed estuarine sanctuary grant award to the state of New York for a Hudson River estuarine sanctuary. Albany, N.Y.: New York, Dept. of Environmental Conservation,  url p. 121, p. 51, p. 52.
- Protected Landscapes: experience around the world. Prepared for the International Symposium on Protected Landscapes, Grange-over-Sands, England 5-10 October 1987 IUCN url p. 17, p. 185, p. 188, p. 310, p. 35, p. 62, p. 72, p. 8, p. 85.
- Protozoan parasites of domestic animals and of man. Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co. url p. 99.
- Publication. Field Museum of Natural History. Chicago, U.S.A.: The Museum, 1910-1943. url , p. 155, p. 472.
- Report number I, the natural resources survey of the Conservation and Natural Resources Commission of New Mexico. Santa Fe, N.M.: New Mexican Printing Co., 1911. url p. 26.
- Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents for the year ending June 30. .. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1933-1965. url p. 112, p. 128, p. 147, p. 150, p. 151, p. 166, p. 70, p. 81, p. 86, p. 94.
- Report on the progress and condition of the U.S. National Museum for the year ending June 30. .. / Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum. Washington: G.P.O., 1907-1951. url p. 132.
- Research on fish and wildlife habitat / technical editor, William T. Mason, consulting editor, Sam Iker. Washington, D.C.Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1982. url p. 175.
- Robb/Ledford Wildlife management area: draft management plan. Helena, MT: Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, 1999 url .
- Savage Sudan; its wild tribes, big-game and bird-life, by Abel Chapman. .. With 248 illustrations, chiefly from rough sketches by the author. London [etc.]: Gurney and Jackson, 1921. url p. 168.
- Sea-birds: an introduction to the natural history of the sea-birds of the North Atlantic / by James Fisher and R. M. Lockley. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1954. url p. 315.
- Smithsonian year. 1965 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965-1976. url p. 177.
- Social feeding behavior of birds. 36 1954 [Chicago]Chicago Natural History Museum, 1954. url p. 15.
- Special scientific report--wildlife / U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service, 1949- url p. 17, p. 2, p. 26, p. 347, p. 368, p. 593, p. 687, p. 9, p. 90.
- Station bulletin. Durham, N.H.: Agricultural Experiment Station, University of New Hampshire, 1948- url p. 31, p. 92.
- Strange dwellings: being a description of the habitations of animals, abridged from 'Homes without hand' / by J.G. Wood; with designs by W.F. Keyl, J.B. Zwecker, and E. Smith. London: Longmans, Green, 1903. url p. 401.
- Summer birds of Flathead Lake / by P.M. Silloway. Missoula: University of Montana, 1901. url , .
- Summer birds of Flathead Lake, [Missoula]University of Montana, 1901. url .
- Supplement to the birds of Essex County, Massachusetts / Cambridge, Mass.: The Club, 1920. url , .
- Textbook of zoology / by George Edwin Potter. St. Louis: Mosby, 1947. url p. 590, p. 924.
- The 25 largest un-fragmented wilderness Areas in the Arctic WWF url p. 79, p. 92.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url p. 206.
- The American natural history: a foundation of useful knowledge of the higher animals of North America / William T. Hornaday. .. illustrated by 225 original drawings. .. 151 photographs. .. and with numerous charts and maps. New York: C. Scribner's sons, 1914. url p. 330.
- The American natural history; a foundation of useful knowledge of the higher animals of North America, by William T. Hornaday. .. illustrated by 225 original drawings by Beard, Rungius, Sawyer, and others, 151 photographs, chiefly by Sanborn, Keller, and Underwood, and with numerous charts and maps; wi New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1914. url p. 330.
- The American oologists' exchange price list of North American birds' eggs, 1922 / compiled by a committee of twenty-five prominent American oologists. Lacon, Ill.: R. Magoon Barnes, 1922. url p. 58.
- The Arctic prairies: a canoe-journey of 2, 000 miles in search of the caribou; being the account of a voyage to the region north of Aylmer Lake / by Ernest Thompson Seton. Toronto: W. Briggs, 1911. url p. 377.
- The Arctic prairies; a canoe-journey of 2, 000 miles in search of the caribou; being the account of a voyage to the region north of Aylmer Lake, New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1911. url p. 377.
- The Canadian bird book: illustrating in natural colors more than seven hundred north American birds, also several hundred photographs of their nests and eggs / by Chester A. Reed. Toronto: Musson Book Co., c1914. url p. 451.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 56 1942 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url title page, index , title page, index, vol. xliii , title page, index , gillett , stirrett & arnott , title page, index , title page, index , baillie , title page, index , , , title page, index , , , p. 100, p. 102, p. 106, p. 109, p. 111, p. 113, p. 115, p. 12, p. 125, p. 13, p. 137, p. 139, p. 140, p. 141, p. 142, p. 146, p. 15, p. 152, p. 155, p. 158, p. 163, p. 171, p. 172, p. 177, p. 178, p. 178, p. 180, p. 183, p. 183, p. 183, p. 185, p. 189, p. 189, p. 191, p. 195, p. 197, p. 201, p. 211, p. 211, p. 213, p. 218, p. 222, p. 224, p. 231, p. 24, p. 245, p. 245, p. 247, p. 250, p. 252, p. 256, p. 257, p. 279, p. 280, p. 281, p. 282, p. 283, p. 284, p. 285, p. 286, p. 286, p. 287, p. 288, p. 291, p. 296, p. 301, p. 301, p. 303, p. 307, p. 320, p. 339, p. 339, p. 350, p. 350, p. 356, p. 367, p. 373, p. 375, p. 383, p. 385, p. 39, p. 4, p. 40, p. 406, p. 425, p. 436, p. 465, p. 47, p. 473, p. 474, p. 479, p. 482, p. 483, p. 494, p. 494, p. 497, p. 498, p. 507, p. 51, p. 515, p. 518, p. 521, p. 523, p. 525, p. 526, p. 527, p. 528, p. 529, p. 530, p. 535, p. 536, p. 537, p. 55, p. 553, p. 556, p. 566, p. 567, p. 568, p. 572, p. 602, p. 626, p. 677, p. 682, p. 70, p. 72, p. 726, p. 732, p. 735, p. 744, p. 747, p. 748, p. 759, p. 82, p. 87, p. 88.
- The Emu: official organ of the Australasian Ornithologists' Union. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, 1901- url p. 303.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 29 1969 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 166, bates & moretti, page 248, p. 248, p. 281, p. 287, p. 296, p. 315, fig. 3, page 415, mosher, white, murphy & jenkins, page 438, ward & anderson, page 449, p. 453, p. 469, p. 479, p. 499, p. 516, p. 520, p. 525, p. 56, p. 577, p. 601, p. 602, p. 650, p. 652, p. 730.
- The Journal of the Museum of Comparative Oology. Santa Barbara, Calif.: The Museum, 1919-1922 url p. 36.
- The Marine Mammal Commission compendium of selected treaties, international agreements, and other relevant documents on marine resources, wildlife, and the environment / compiled by Richard L. Wallace. Washington, D.C.: The Commission; 1994 url p. 3481.
- The Natural history of the Toronto Region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. -- Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url p. 223.
- The Philippine journal of science. 15 1919 Manila. url p. 52, p. 57, p. 58.
- The University of Colorado studies. Boulder, University of Colorado. url p. 136, p. 194, p. 229, p. 235.
- The Warbler. Floral Park: Mayflower Pub. Co., [1903-1913] url p. 80.
- The biology of senescence. New York, Rinehart, 1956. url p. 50.
- The bird book: illustrating in natural colors more than seven hundred North American birds, also several hundred photographs of their nests and eggs / by Chester A. Reed, S.B. Worcester, Mass.: C. K. Reed, 1914. url p. 451.
- The birds of Albany County; a catalogue of the species recorded in this vicinity with notes on their lives and habits, and brief field-marks for aid in identification. Containing one plate from a water-color by William S. Barkentin; ten plates from pen and ink drawings by George Louis Richard, and eleven half-tones from photographs. Albany, N. Y.[Press of Brandow printing co.]1907. url p. 166.
- The birds of Amherst and vicinity, including nearly the whole of Hampshire county, Massachusetts. Amherst, Mass., Press of Carpenter & Morehouse, 1906. url p. 57.
- The birds of Amherst and vicinity: including nearly the whole of Hampshire County, Massachusetts / Amherst, Mass.: Carpenter & Morehouse, 1906. url .
- The birds of Connecticut, Hartford, Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1913. url , , , .
- The birds of Connecticut, by John Hall Sage and Louis Bennett Bishop, assisted by Walter Parks Bliss. Hartford, Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1913. url p. 194, p. 194, p. 278, p. 278, p. 361, p. 361, p. 81, p. 81.
- The birds of El Paso County, Colorado / Colorado Springs: Published by the authority of the Board of Trustees of Colorado College, 1914 url , .
- The birds of Erie and Presque Isle, Erie County, Pennsylvania / Pittsburgh?: s.l., 1904? url .
- The birds of Essex County, Massachusetts. By Charles Wendell Townsend, M.D. Cambridge, Mass.: The Club, 1905. url p. 334.
- The birds of Fergus County, Montana / by P. M. Silloway. Lewistown, Mont.: Press of the Argus, 1903. url p. 31, p. 73.
- The birds of Illinois and Wisconsin / by Charles B. Cory. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1909. url p. 155, p. 472, p. 751.
- The birds of Massachusetts, Cambridge, Mass., 1901. url , .
- The birds of Massachusetts, by Reginald Heber Howe and Glover Morrill Allen. Cambridge, Mass., 1901. url p. 64, p. 64.
- The birds of New Jersey / by Witmer Stone. Trenton: J.L. Murphy Pub. Co., 1909. url p. 164.
- The birds of Ohio; a complete scientific and popular description of the 320 species of birds found in the state, Columbus, The Wheaton Publishing Co., 1903, [c1902] url , , .
- The birds of Ohio; a revised catalogue, [Columbus?]Academy of Science, 1903. url , .
- The birds of Springfield and vicinity / Springfield, Mass.: Henry R. Johnson, l901. url .
- The birds of Texas; an annotated check-list, by John K. Strecker, Jr.. .. Waco, Tex., The University, 1912. url p. 28.
- The birds of Tunisia; being a history of the birds found in the regency of Tunis. By J. I. S. Whitaker. London, R.H. Porter, 1905. url p. 106.
- The birds of Washington: a complete, scientific and popular account of the 372 species of birds found in the state / by William Leon Dawson, assisted by John Hooper Bowles. Illustrated by more than 300 original half-tones of birds in life, nests, eggs, and favorite haunts, from photographs by the author and others, Seattle: Occidental Pub. Co., 1909. url p. 515.
- The birds of Washington; a complete, scientific and popular account of the 372 species of birds found in the state, by William Leon Dawson, assisted by John Hooper Bowles. Illustrated by more than 300 original half-tones of birds in life, nests, eggs, and favorite haunts, from photographs by the author and others, Seattle: The Occidental Pub. Co., 1909. url p. 515.
- The birds of Wyoming / By Wilbur C. Knight. Laramie, Wyo.: Wyoming Experiment Station, 1902. url p. 140, p. 144, p. 365.
- The birds of Wyoming, with an explanation of recent changes in their distribution; economic aspect also considered. By B. H. Grave and Ernest P. Walker. [Laramie]University of Wyoming, 1913. url p. 42.
- The birds of Wyoming. [Laramie, Wyoming Experiment Station]1902. url , .
- The birds of the Cambridge region of Massachusetts. Cambridge, Mass., The Club, 1906. url .
- The birds of the Chicago area / [Chicago, Jennings and Graham], 1907. url , , .
- The birds of the Chicago area, by Frank Morley Woodruff. .. [Chicago, Printed by Jennings and Graham]1907. url p. 207, p. 97.
- The birds of the Red Deer River, Alberta. n.p., n.d. url p. 18, p. 265.
- The birds of the vicinity of Lake Nipissing, Ontario / [Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum], 1939. url p. 7.
- The book of woodcraft and Indian lore, with over 500 drawings by the author, Ernest Thompson Seton. .. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & Company, 1922. url p. 250.
- The book of woodcraft, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & company, 1912. url p. 334.
- The book of woodcraft. .. New York, The Sun dial press, inc. url p. 250.
- The ecology of Tijuana Estuary, California: a national estuarine research reserve / by Joy B. Zedler, Christopher S. Nordby and Barbara E. Kus. [Washington, D.C.: NOAA Office of Coastal Resource Management, Sanctuaries and Reserves Division], 1992. url p. 30, p. 71.
- The effect of altered streamflow on migratory birds of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana / by Tom Hinz. Helena: Water Resources Division, Montana Dept. of Natural Resources & Conservation, 1977. url p. 101.
- The exploitation of natural animal populations; a symposium of the British Ecological Society, Durham, 28th-31st March 1960. Edited by E. D. Le Cren and M. W. Holdgate. New York, Wiley url p. 392, p. 394, p. 97.
- The faunal connections between Europe and North America. New York, Wiley url p. 26.
- The linkages between biodiversity and climate change mitigation: A review of the recent scientific literature UNEP-WCMC url p. 48.
- The natural enemies of birds. Boston, Wright and Potter Printing Co., state printers, 1916. url .
- The natural history and topography of Groton, Massachusetts / by Samuel Abbott Green. .. [Cambridge, J. Wilson and Son]1912-14. url p. 35.
- The natural history of the Toronto region, Ontario, Canada, Toronto, Pub. by the Canadian institute, 1913. url .
- The natural history of the USSR / Algirdas Knystautas; foreword by Vladimir Flint; [translation, John S. Scott]. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987. url p. 214.
- The naturalist of the Saint Croix. Memoir of George A. Boardman. A selection from his correspondence and published writings, notices of friends and contemporaries, with his list of the birds of Maine and New Brunswick. By Samuel Lane Boardman... Bangor, Priv. print., 1903. url p. 308, p. 308, p. 308.
- The raptorial birds of Iowa, by Bert Heald Bailey. .. Des Moines, Iowa Geological Survey, 1918. url p. 142, p. 144, p. 6.
- The summer birds of Yakutat Bay, Alaska / [Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology], 1939. url p. 11.
- The summer birds of the northeast shore of Lake Superior, Ontario / [Toronto]: Printed by the University of Toronto Press, 1943. url p. 7.
- The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation [by] Gordon Lynn Walls. Bloomfield Hills, Mich., Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1942 url p. 643.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 103, p. 130, p. 161, p. 88, p. 97.
- Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 3 1919 [San Diego]: The Society, 1905-1989. url p. 15, p. 289, p. 41.
- Travels of a naturalist in northern Europe, Norway, 1871, Archangel, 1872, Petchora, 1875, London, T. F. Unwin, 1905. url p. 117, p. 529.
- Types of birds in the Tring Museum. n. p., 1922? url .
- University of California publications in zoology. Berkeley: University Press, 1906- url p. 221, p. 236, p. 340, p. 365, p. 407, p. 429, p. 437, p. 58.
- University of Kansas publications, Museum of Natural History. 8 1956 Lawrence, University of Kansas. url p. 319, p. 609, p. 613, p. 651.
- Vertebrates of Ontario, by C. W. Nash. Department of Education, Toronto. Printed by order of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario Toronto, L. K. Cameron, 1908 url p. 42.
- What bird is that? A pocket museum of the land birds of the eastern United States, arranged according to season. New York, D. Appleton[c1920] url .
- Wild animals of Glacier National Park. The mammals, Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1918. url .
- Wild life in Canada / by Angus Buchanan; with numerous photographs by the author. Toronto: McClelland, Goodchild and Stewart, 1920. url p. 239.
- Wild life in Canada, by Captain Angus Buchanan. .. with numerous photographs by the author. New York: F. A. Stokes, 1920. url p. 239.
- Wildbirds of New York / by Chester A. Reed. Mohonk Lake, N.Y.: Mohonk Salesrooms, c1912. url p. 49.
- World Checklist of Threatened Birds Joint Nature Conservation Committee url p. 245, p. 30.
- Wyoming birds and their value to agriculture, Laramie, Wyoming, 1916. url .
- Zoological Society bulletin. [New York]: New York Zoological Society. url p. 1619.
- Zoology of Colorado, by Theodore D.A. Cockerell. .. Boulder, Col., University of Colorado, 1927. url p. 72.
- BirdLife International 2004. Aquila chrysaetos. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. and lt;www.iucnredlist.org and gt;. Downloaded on 21 October 2006.
- BirdLife International 2004. In IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded July 18, 2008.
- BirdLife International 2009. Aquila chrysaetos. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 30January2012.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 31, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed June 30, 2006. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 20 providers.
- Hines, J. E., Gregory Gough, J. R. Sauer, et al. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Accessed February 27, 2006. www.iobis.org
- Parker III, T.A., D.F. Stotz, and J.W. Fitzpatrick, and quot;Ecological and Distributional Databases for Neotropical Birds, and quot; in Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation, by D.F. Stotz, T.A. Parker III, J.W. Fitzpatrick, and D.K. Moskovits (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). ISBN 0-226-64676-9.
- Peterson, Alan P. Zoological Nomenclature Resource. Accessed June 19, 2009.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, and J. Fallon. 2005. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966 - 2004. Version 2005.2. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD
- Sauer, J. R., S. Schwartz, and B. Hoover. 1996. The Christmas Bird Count Home Page. Version 95.1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD
- Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8646
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-175408
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 175407
- IUCN ID: 192268
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNKC22010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 178018