- During the early 1900s the Wood Duck was near extinction due to over hunting and the clearing of forests . Formation of the Migratory Bird Treaty in 1916, the Federal Bird Treaty Act in 1918, improved land management practices within wetland habitats as well as increased hunting controls and the use of artificial nesting boxes have helped to rebuild the population. Wood Duck conservation programs have been quite successful.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
North American Wood Duck, acorn duck, bridal duck, Carolina duck, Carolina wood duck, squealer, summer duck, swamp duck, the bride, tree duck, Wood Duck, wood wigeon, woody
Common Names in French:
canard branchu, Canard carolin
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Spanish:
Pato arcoiris, Pato Joyuyo
Common Names in Swedish:
Adult Female: Head : gray Crest : gray Face : Chin: white Eyebrow Line : black with U-shaped white patch Eyeline: white teardrop Bill: dark Length : short Body: Back: iridescent blue-green Breast: brownish Sides: white streaks on brown Legs : Femorals: white streaks on brown Tail: dark Length: long Shape : squared.Adult Male: Head: black with white lines Crest: long, pointed with white lines Face: Eyebrow Line: black with U-shaped white patch Bill: red, white, black, and yellow Neck: black with U-shaped white patch Body: Back: iridescent blue-green Breast: burgundy with white spots Sides: yellowish Legs: Femorals: burgundy Tail: dark Length: long Shape: squared.
have a crested
, white belly, and a white line
the back of the wing
(especially seen while the bird is in flight).
The head of the male is iridescent
green, blue, and purple, with
two white lines that run parallel to each other from the base
the bill and behind
the eye to the back of the head. The male also
has a white chin and throat
, red eyes, red at the base of the bill,
a deep rust-colored chest, bronze sides, and a black back and tail.
In contrast, the female is gray-brown overall, with white eye rings
and a white throat and chin. There are three mutations
of the Wood
: the Apricot, the White and the Silver forms. The
White Wood Duck is primarily white with pinkish markings. The Apricot
Wood Duck is a pastel apricot color, and the bill is a deeper red.
The newest and most unique mutation is the Silver Wood Duck. The
plumage of the Silver Wood Duck is shades of dark gray to silver.
Adult male alternate: Alternate plumage worn from Fall-through early summer · Red bill · Red eye · Green head · Striking white stripes about face and crest with a large white throat patch and "fingerlike" extensions onto cheek and neck · Chestnut breast and neck with vertical white stripe at lower margin · Golden flanks bordered above by a white flank stripe · White belly · Iridescent dark green-blue back and wings
Adult male basic: In basic plumage, the male resembles the female, but often retains the distinctive neck patch and red bill
Adult female: Gray bill · White teardrop shaped patch around eye · White throat · Gray-brown head and neck · Gray-brown breast stippled with white and fading to a white belly · Dark brown back
Juvenal plumage: Gray bill · Female similar to adult female · Males similar to adult females, but with white neck patch
About 17 to 20 inches long, with a wingspan of 28 to 30 inches. Adults weigh about 24 ounces .
The Wood Duck spends most of its time in the water or in forests , always being close to a creek , river , pond , or swamp . They prefer freshwater waterways , streams , woodland habitat surrounding hillside lakes .
Vegetation: freshwater lakes and ponds, streams • Maximum Elevation: 900 meters • Foraging Strata: Water • Center of Abundance: Lower tropical: lowlands, lower than 500 m.; tropics. • Sensitivity to Disturbance: Medium
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,911 meters (0 to 9,551 feet).
List of Habitats
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
The primary food for the adult is acorns , along with some fruits and nut products which it gathers in shallow flooded areas or on the ground along wooded stream banks. It will eat alternative seed crops from plants such as cypress, hickory, and buttonbush (a shrub in the genus Cephalanthus that commonly grows in swamps and along pond borders and stream margins). They also eat floating freshwater plant matter such as duckweed. When preferred foods are unavailable , waste corn from fields is sometimes eaten.
In the southern portion of its range
, the Wood
Duck begins nesting
In February and early March. In the northern areas, breeding begins
in mid-March to mid-April. The peak breeding season
in the South
is mid-March to mid-April; in the North it is late March through
April. The Wood Duck is a cavity
, readily using man-made nest
boxes when natural cavities are limited. Nest cavities are usually
located within 1 mile
of water, and average 9 m
(30 feet) above the
. The nest is lined
with wood chips and down
. The female lays
6-15 (usually 10-15) eggs
. Any nest with more than 15 eggs probably
contains eggs that have been "dumped" by one or more other
females. Like many other bird species, a female Wood Duck will lay
eggs in others' nests. The reasons for this behavior are unknown,
but may include a female's own nest having been destroyed or a female
to "put all her eggs in one basket," as the
saying goes. Dumped eggs can result in an apparent clutch
up to 50 eggs. Females incubate the eggs for approximately 30 days,
only leaving the nest twice a day. The young are precocial and remain
in the nest for 24 hours. The female coaxes the young out of the
cavity and leads
them to the nearest water. The female will then
care for the young for 56-70 days, at which time they become independent
- Breeding Habitat: Wetland-open water
- Nest Type: Cavity
- Clutch Size: 8-15
- Length of Incubation : 28-37 days
- Days to Fledge : 56-70
- Number of Broods: 1, occasionally 2, especially in south
Wood Ducks are among the few ducks that roost and nest in trees . Newly hatched chicks will jump from the nest to follow their mother to water. Baby Wood Ducks can survive falls of more than 40 ft . Male Wood Ducks are extremely territorial during the mating season , and aggressively protect the area around the female.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Sibley et al., 1988
- Wagler, 1831
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Wagler, 1831
- Series: href="http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/title/493 ()
- Infraorder: Anserides ()
- Suborder: Anseres () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Wagler, 1831
- Order: Anseriformes () - Wagler, 1831
- Superorder: Galloanserimorphae () - Sibley et al., 1988
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Aix sponsa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 23-Jan-2007
Blue Winged Teal, Green Winged Teal
Members of the genus Aix
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 2 species and subspecies in this genus:
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 27, 2007:
- Avian Knowledge Network, eBird
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Ontario Nest Records
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal British Columbia Museum
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- New Brunswick Museum, NBM birds
- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Herts Bird Club - Hertfordshire Breeding Bird Atlas : 1988-1992
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM, CNAV/Coleccion Nacional de Aves
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 11678
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-175122
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 175122
- IUCN ID: 189522
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNJB09010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 912