Family : Sturgeons ; Found in estuaries, lower reaches of large rivers , and in salt or brackish water off river mouths . Probably spawns in fresh water . May cover considerable distances in the ocean. Edible but with a disagreeable taste and unpleasant odor.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Czech:
Jeseter Sachalinsk, Jeseter Sachalinský
Common Names in Danish:
Gr, Grøn Stør
Common Names in English:
Barbel Sturgeon, Green Sturgeon, Green Japanese Sturgeon, Sakhalin Sturgeon, Short-Nose Sturgeon
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Gr, Grüner Stör, Sachalinst, Sachalinstör
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Korean:
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
Sterlyad, осетр зеленый, Осетр сахалинский, сахалинский осетр, тихоокеанский осетр
Common Names in Salish:
Common Names in Spanish:
Esturi?n Verde, Esturi
Species Acipenser medirostris
Males are commonly 130 cm (Total Length) in length when caught/marketed, but may be as large as 213 cm (Total Length).
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 192 meters (630 feet).
The Green Sturgeon
is among the most marine
oriented and widespread
of the sturgeons
. Like most sturgeons, the Green Sturgeon is characterized
by large size, longevity
, delayed maturation
, high fecundity
far-ranging movements. Green Sturgeon reach sizes up to 2.7 m
have been aged to over 50 years (Nakamoto et al.
et al. 2002). Mortality rates of subadults
low and probably do not exceed 10% per year from natural causes based
on age frequency
analysis. Males typically mature
at about 15–17
years and 1.5–1.8 m, while females typically mature at 20–25 years
and 1.8–2.1 m (Van Eenennaam and Doroshov 2001a). Similarly aged
males are generally smaller than females with males from the northern
DPS achieving a maximum size of 168 cm, while sexually mature males
and females from the southern DPS range
in size from 139 to199 cm
and 157 to 223 cm, respectively (Adams et al. 2002). Spawning
is believed to occur every 3-5 years and the generation time
years (Davies 2004).
Green Sturgeon are oviparious broadcast spawners and adult Green Sturgeon typically migrate into freshwater beginning in late February and spawning occurs in April to June in deep, turbulent river mainstems (Moyle et al. 1995). Klamath and Rogue River populations appear to spawn within 160 km of the ocean while the Sacramento population may travel over 320 km upriver. Green Sturgeon eggs and larvae are comparatively larger than those of other sturgeon species. For example, Cech et al. (2000) reported a egg diameter of 4.34, 3.40 and 2.62 mm for green, white, and Atlantic Sturgeon (A. oxyrinchus) respectfully indicating that Green Sturgeon have eggs which have a volume twice that of white and over four times that of Atlantic Sturgeon. Consequently, Green Sturgeon have a relatively lower fecundity in comparison to other similar sized sturgeon species as reproductive energy is more heavily invested in egg size rather than egg number (Van Eenennaam et al. 2001b, Cech et al. 2000). Fecundity varies with age and size, but has been estimated to be in the order of 2,800 eggs per kilogram bodyweight; approximately half that of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) at 5,648 eggs per kilogram bodyweight (Moyle 2002).
The eggs do not form a thick jelly coat as do those of other North American sturgeon and exhibit poor adhesion to substrate (Deng 2000, Cech et al. 2000), which would indicate sensitivity to turbidity loading (Moyle et al. 1994, Moyle 2002). Furthermore, the larger eggs and higher growth rates of developing Green Sturgeon in comparison to other North American sturgeons suggests that a higher oxygen demand may be required for proper embryonic development; thus Green Sturgeon may require colder, cleaner water for spawning. (USFWS 1995).
Eggs hatch in 7 to 9 days at 15°C (Van Eenennaam et al. 2001). Cech et al. (2000) reported that temperatures above 20°C are lethal to embryos and temperatures above 24°C significantly reduce five-day larval growth rates . Larvae begin to feed at 10 days post hatch and complete metamorphosis into juveniles at 45 days (Adams et al. 2002). Juvenile Green Sturgeon grow rapidly reaching 60 cm within 2–3 years and they spend 1–4 years in fresh and estuarine waters before dispersal to saltwater (Beamsesderfer and Webb 2002). Green Sturgeon are commonly observed in bays and estuaries up and down the coast and large concentrations enter the Columbia River estuary , and Washington's Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay during late summer (Moyle et al. 1995). Limited tagging studies show that tagged individuals from the Columbia River have been recaptured off the west coast of Vancouver Island (Adams et al. 2002).
During the 1 to 4 years of freshwater residence, juveniles gradually move to deeper and more saline areas as they grow (Beamesderfer and Webb 2002). As juveniles grow, they exhibit greater tolerance to salinity and achieve seawater tolerance at seven months or sooner (Allen and Cech 2003). Adults return to freshwater to spawn, and Green Sturgeon have been reported to spawn up to 160 km upstream in the Klamath and Rogue rivers, and over 300 km upstream in the Sacramento River (Beamesderder and Webb 2002). After spawning, they to sea in late autumn to early winter when temperatures drop below 10°C and flows increased above 100 m3s-1 (Erickson et al. 2002).
Juveniles are opportunistic benthic feeders with a diet consisting of various invertebrates and fish (EPIC 2001, Moyle 2002). Stomach content analysis indicates that adult Green Sturgeon have a marine diet consisting of various benthic invertebrates including shrimp, crabs, worms, amphioids, and isopods (EPIC 2001), but have also been observed feeding on sand lances (Ammodytes hexapterus) and other fish..
List of Habitats :
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.10 Marine Neritic - Estuaries
- 10 Marine Oceanic
- 10.1 Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m) [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Huxley, 1880
- Order: Acipenseriformes ()
- Infraclass: Actinopteri ()
- Subclass: Actinopterygii ()
- Class: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 28-Jan-1994
Synonyms = A. medirostris mikadoi Hilgendorf, 1892 (although this is now probably best treated as a distinct species); A. acutirostris Ayres, 1854.
The Green Sturgeon was once considered conspecific with the Sakhalin Sturgeon (A. mikadoi) and the two forms were synonymized (Berg 1948). However, recent molecular data on three mitochondrial genes and morphometric studies show large differences between North American and Asian forms (Birstein and DeSalle 1998, North et al. 2002). Sakhalin Sturgeon is now believed extinct in Japan, Korea and China and the species sustains only a remnant population in Russia's Tumnin River where there is a hatchery (Adams et al. 2002)..
Members of the genus Acipenser
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 36 species and subspecies in this genus:
A. baerii (Long-Nosed Siberian Sturgeon) · A. baerii baerii (Lena River Sturgeon) · A. baerii baicalensis (Baikal Sturgeon) · A. baerii baikalensis (Baikal Sturgeon) · A. baerii stenorrhynchus (Lena River Sturgeon) · A. baeri stenorrhynchus (Lena River Sturgeon) · A. brevirostris (Short-Nosed Little Sturgeon) · A. brevirostrum (Short-Nosed Little Sturgeon) · A. dabryanus (Dabry´s Sturgeon) · A. dauricus (Great Siberian Sturgeon) · A. fulvescens (Lake Sturgeon) · A. gueldenstaedti (Caspian Sturgeon) · A. gueldenstaedtii (Caspian Sturgeon) · A. gueldenstaedti brandt (Azov-Black Sea Sturgeon) · A. huso (European Sturgeon) · A. medirostris (Barbel Sturgeon) · A. mikadoi (Sakhalin Sturgeon) · A. multiscutatus (Japanese Sturgeon) · A. naccari (Adriatic Sturgeon) · A. naccarii (Adriatic Sturgeon) · A. nudiventris (American Atlantic Sturgeon) · A. oxyrhynchus (Atlantic Sturgeon) · A. oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus (Atlantic Sturgeon) · A. oxyrinchus (American Atlantic Sturgeon) · A. oxyrinchus desotoi (Gulf Sturgeon) · A. oxyrinchus oxyrinchus (American Atlantic Sturgeon) · A. persicus (Persian Sturgeon) · A. plecostomus (Suckermouth Catfish) · A. ruthenus (Sterlet Sturgeon) · A. schrencki (Japanese Sturgeon) · A. schrenckii (Japanese Striped Loach) · A. sinensis (Chinese Sturgeon) · A. stellatus (Stellate Sturgeon) · A. stenorrhynchus (Long-Nosed Siberian Sturgeon) · A. sturio (Atlantic Sturegon) · A. transmontanus (Sacramento Sturgeon)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:
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- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
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- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History: Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3862679
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-29588
- Fishbase Species ID: 2592
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 161067
- IUCN ID: 188487
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: AFCAA01030
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 519
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- Standard Deviation = 639.450 based on 5 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
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